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Concept: Jalapeño

213

The genus Capsicum is New World in origin and represents a complex of a wide variety of both wild and domesticated taxa. Peppers or fruits of Capsicum species rarely have been identified in the paleoethnobotanical record in either Meso- or South America. We report here confirmation of Capsicum sp. residues from pottery samples excavated at Chiapa de Corzo in southern Mexico dated from Middle to Late Preclassic periods (400 BCE to 300 CE). Residues from 13 different pottery types were collected and extracted using standard techniques. Presence of Capsicum was confirmed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)/MS-MS Analysis. Five pottery types exhibited chemical peaks for Capsicum when compared to the standard (dihydrocapsaicin). No peaks were observed in the remaining eight samples. Results of the chemical extractions provide conclusive evidence for Capsicum use at Chiapas de Corzo during a 700 year period (400 BCE-300 CE). Presence of Capsicum in different types of culinary-associated pottery raises questions how chili pepper could have been used during this early time period. As Pre-Columbian cacao products sometimes were flavored using Capsicum, the same pottery sample set was tested for evidence of cacao using a theobromine marker: these results were negative. As each vessel that tested positive for Capsicum had a culinary use we suggest here the possibility that chili residues from the Chiapas de Corzo pottery samples reflect either paste or beverage preparations for religious, festival, or every day culinary use. Alternatively, some vessels that tested positive merely could have been used to store peppers. Most interesting from an archaeological context was the presence of Capsicum residue obtained from a spouted jar, a pottery type previously thought only to be used for pouring liquids.

Concepts: Mexico, Capsicum, Capsaicin, Chili pepper, Black pepper, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Mexican cuisine, Jalapeño

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The use of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in F1 hybrid seed production of chili pepper is increasingly popular. However, the molecular mechanisms of cytoplasmic male sterility and fertility restoration remain poorly understood due to limited transcriptomic and genomic data. Therefore, we analyzed the difference between a CMS line 121A and its near-isogenic restorer line 121C in transcriptome level using next generation sequencing technology (NGS), aiming to find out critical genes and pathways associated with the male sterility.

Concepts: Molecular biology, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum, Chili pepper, Cytoplasmic male sterility, Cayenne pepper, Paprika, Jalapeño

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ABSTRACT A novel disease resistance inhibitor gene (inhibitor of P. capsici resistance [Ipcr]), found in the chile pepper (Capsicum annuum) variety ‘New Mexico Capsicum Accession 10399’ (NMCA10399), inhibits resistance to Phytophthora capsici but not to other species of Phytophthora. When a highly P. capsici-resistant variety was hybridized with NMCA10399, the resultant F1 populations, when screened, were completely susceptible to P. capsici for root rot and foliar blight disease syndromes, despite the dominance inheritance of P. capsici resistance in chile pepper. The F2 population displayed a 3:13 resistant-to-susceptible (R:S) ratio. The testcross population displayed a 1:1 R:S ratio, and a backcross population to NMCA10399 displayed complete susceptibility. These results demonstrate the presence of a single dominant inhibitor gene affecting P. capsici resistance in chile pepper. Moreover, when lines carrying the Ipcr gene were challenged against six Phytophthora spp., the nonhost resistance was not overcome. Therefore, the Ipcr gene is interfering with host-specific resistance but not the pathogen- or microbe-associated molecular pattern nonhost responses.

Concepts: Plant pathogens and diseases, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum, Chili pepper, Phytophthora capsici, Cayenne pepper, Paprika, Jalapeño

8

The study of crop origins has traditionally involved identifying geographic areas of high morphological diversity, sampling populations of wild progenitor species, and the archaeological retrieval of macroremains. Recent investigations have added identification of plant microremains (phytoliths, pollen, and starch grains), biochemical and molecular genetic approaches, and dating through (14)C accelerator mass spectrometry. We investigate the origin of domesticated chili pepper, Capsicum annuum, by combining two approaches, species distribution modeling and paleobiolinguistics, with microsatellite genetic data and archaeobotanical data. The combination of these four lines of evidence yields consensus models indicating that domestication of C. annuum could have occurred in one or both of two areas of Mexico: northeastern Mexico and central-east Mexico. Genetic evidence shows more support for the more northern location, but jointly all four lines of evidence support central-east Mexico, where preceramic macroremains of chili pepper have been recovered in the Valley of Tehuacán. Located just to the east of this valley is the center of phylogenetic diversity of Proto-Otomanguean, a language spoken in mid-Holocene times and the oldest protolanguage for which a word for chili pepper reconstructs based on historical linguistics. For many crops, especially those that do not have a strong archaeobotanical record or phylogeographic pattern, it is difficult to precisely identify the time and place of their origin. Our results for chili pepper show that expressing all data in similar distance terms allows for combining contrasting lines of evidence and locating the region(s) where cultivation and domestication of a crop began.

Concepts: Mass spectrometry, Maize, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum, Chili pepper, Wildness, Cayenne pepper, Jalapeño

2

Plant uptake and metabolism of emerging organic contaminants, such as personal-care products, pose potential risks to human health. In this study, jalapeno pepper ( Capsicum annuum) plants cultured in hydroponic media were exposed to both 14C-labeled and unlabeled triclocarban (TCC) to investigate the accumulation, distribution, and metabolism of TCC following plant uptake. The results revealed that TCC was detected in all plant tissues; after 12 weeks, the TCC concentrations in root, stem, leaf, and fruit tissues were 19.74 ± 2.26, 0.26 ± 0.04, 0.11 ± 0.01, and 0.03 ± 0.01 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. More importantly, a substantial portion of the TCC taken up by plants was metabolized, especially in the stems, leaves, and fruits. Hydroxylated TCC (e.g., 2'-OH TCC and 6-OH TCC) and glycosylated OH-TCC were the main phase I and phase II metabolites in plant tissues, respectively. Bound (or nonextractable) residues of TCC accounted for approximately 44.6, 85.6, 69.0, and 47.5% of all TCC species that accumulated in roots, stems, leaves, and fruits, respectively. The concentrations of TCC metabolites were more than 20 times greater than the concentrations of TCC in the above-ground tissues of the jalapeno pepper plants after 12 weeks; crucially, approximately 95.6% of the TCC was present as metabolites in the fruits. Consequently, human exposure to TCC through the consumption of pepper fruits is expected to be substantially higher when phytometabolism is considered.

Concepts: Photosynthesis, Plant, Fruit, Plant morphology, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum, Chili pepper, Jalapeño

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The present study was designed to evaluate the contents of different antioxidants compounds and their antioxidant activities in Jalopeno peppers (Capsicum annuum) cultivars (El Dorido, Grande, Tula, Sayula and El Rey) extracts. Free radical scavenging activity of Grande was recorded as high as 87% followed by El Dorido (83%). Results of reducing power (Fe3+ to Fe2+) showed that Grande (0.85%) and El Dorido (0.81%) fruit extract absorbance value were close to synthetic antioxidant BHT (0. 97%) obtained at100 μg/mL. The results showed that total phenolic content of El Dorido and Grande were significantly higher compared to other Jalapeno pepper. Results indicated strong and positive correlation between antioxidant activity and carotenoids content (r = 0.75), vitamin C (r = 0.78) and total capsaicinoids (r = 0.84), respectively. The results of the antioxidant activity assays showed that the El Dorido and Grande had strongest antioxidant activity compared to other peppers cultivars in this study.

Concepts: Antioxidant, Vitamin C, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum, Chili pepper, Scoville scale, Butylated hydroxytoluene, Jalapeño

0

During the last few years, a growing number of antimicrobial peptides have been isolated from plants and particularly from seeds. Recent results from our laboratory have shown the purification of a new trypsin inhibitor, named CaTI, from chilli pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seeds. This study aims to evaluate the antifungal activity and mechanism of action of CaTI on phytopathogenic fungi and detect the presence of protease inhibitors in other species of this genus.

Concepts: Enzyme, Plant, Fruit, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum, Cayenne pepper, Paprika, Jalapeño

0

In this research 12 different varieties of Capsicum cultivars belonging to three species (Capsicum chinense, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens) and of various colour, shape, and dimension have been characterised by their carotenoids and capsaicinoids content. The berries were cultivated in the region Emilia-Romagna, in Northern Italy. The native carotenoid composition was directly investigated by an HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS methodology, for the first time. In total, 52 carotenoids have been identified and considerable variation in carotenoid composition was observed among the various cultivars investigated. Among the cultivars with red colour, some Habanero, Naga morich and Sinpezon showed an high β-carotene content, whereas Serrano, Tabasco and Jalapeno showed an high capsanthin content and the absence of β-carotene. Habanero golden and Scotch Bonnet showed a high lutein, α-carotene and β-carotene amounts, and Habanero orange was rich in antheraxanthin, capsanthin and zeaxanthin. Cis-cryptocapsin was present in high amount in Habanero chocolate. The qualitative and quantitative determination of the capsaicinoids, alkaloids responsible for the pungency level, has also been estimated by a validated chromatographic procedure (HPLC-DAD) after a preliminary drying step and an opportune extraction procedure. Results have also been expressed in Scoville units. Dry matter and water activity have also been established on the fresh berries. The dried peppers of each variety were then submitted to the evaluation of the total nitrogen content, measured by a Dumas system, permitting to provide information on the protein content that was found to be in the range between 7 and 16%.

Concepts: Capsicum annuum, Capsicum, Chili pepper, Scoville scale, Bell pepper, Jalapeño, Chili peppers, Scotch bonnet

0

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Dissipation of chlorpyriphos and cypermethrin in chilli was studied following three applications of a combination formulation of Nurelle-D 505 (chlorpyriphos 50 % + cypermethrin 5 %) at 1 and 2 L ha(-1) at an interval of 15 days. Residues of chlorpyriphos and cypermethrin in chilli were estimated by gas-liquid chromatography and confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Half-life periods for chlorpyriphos were found to be 4.43 and 2.01 days, whereas for cypermethrin these values were observed to be 2.51 and 2.64 days at single and double the application rates, respectively. Residues of chlorpyriphos dissipated to more than 80 % after 10 days at both the dosages. However, residues of cypermethrin dissipated to the extent of more than 70 % in 7 days. Soil samples collected after 15 days of the last application did not show the presence of chlorpyriphos and cypermethrin at their respective determination limit of 0.01 mg kg(-1). The use of chlorpyriphos and cypermethrin mixture at the recommended dosage does not seem to pose any hazards to the consumers, and a waiting period of 1 day is suggested to reduce the risk before consumption of green chilli.

Concepts: Chromatography, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum, Chili pepper, Dissipation, Cayenne pepper, Paprika, Jalapeño