SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Isle of Man

25

Our aim is to measure and compare the academic and research output of neurosurgical departments across the UK and Ireland.

Concepts: United Kingdom, Europe, English people, British Isles, London, Northern Ireland, Irish Sea, Isle of Man

19

Brexit will have profound implications for health and health policy yet, while much attention has focused on health professionals, medicines and health protection, the risk of food insecurity, and thus health, has received less attention. We identify five major threats to the availability and affordability of food supplies. These are a lack of regulatory alignment restricting ability to import foods from the EU and beyond, a shortage of agricultural labour in the UK, increased prices of imported foods due to tariffs, damage to supply chains, for example, due to customs delays and loss of interoperability of transportation, and damage to agricultural production and food flows in Ireland.

Concepts: European Union, United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, Europe, England, Food security, International trade, Isle of Man

19

The Mesolithic-to-Neolithic transition marked the time when a hunter-gatherer economy gave way to agriculture, coinciding with rising sea levels. Bouldnor Cliff, is a submarine archaeological site off the Isle of Wight in the United Kingdom that has a well-preserved Mesolithic paleosol dated to 8000 years before the present. We analyzed a core obtained from sealed sediments, combining evidence from microgeomorphology and microfossils with sedimentary ancient DNA (sedaDNA) analyses to reconstruct floral and faunal changes during the occupation of this site, before it was submerged. In agreement with palynological analyses, the sedaDNA sequences suggest a mixed habitat of oak forest and herbaceous plants. However, they also provide evidence of wheat 2000 years earlier than mainland Britain and 400 years earlier than proximate European sites. These results suggest that sophisticated social networks linked the Neolithic front in southern Europe to the Mesolithic peoples of northern Europe.

Concepts: United Kingdom, Europe, England, British Isles, British people, Northern Europe, English Channel, Isle of Man

12

understanding how best to provide palliative care for frail older people with non-malignant conditions is an international priority. We aimed to develop a community-based episodic model of short-term integrated palliative and supportive care (SIPS) based on the views of service users and other key stakeholders in the United Kingdom.

Concepts: Palliative care, United Kingdom, England, Hospice, Nursing specialties, Celtic F.C., Isle of Man

10

External ventricular drain (EVD) insertion is a common neurosurgical procedure. EVD-related infection (ERI) is a major complication that can lead to morbidity and mortality. In this study, we aimed to establish a national ERI rate in the UK and Ireland and determine key factors influencing the infection risk.

Concepts: United Kingdom, Europe, English language, English people, British Isles, Northern Ireland, Irish Sea, Isle of Man

2

To describe clinical characteristics and preoperative management of a national cohort of infants with Hirschsprung’s disease (HD).

Concepts: Epidemiology, United Kingdom, Europe, English people, British Isles, Northern Ireland, Irish Sea, Isle of Man

1

Many fish species face increasing challenges associated with climate change and overfishing. At the same time, aquaculture is becoming vital for food security. Gaining a deeper understanding of the basic biology of fish is therefore more important than ever. Here we synthesize and summarize key questions, opportunities and challenges in fish biology highlighted during a round-table discussion at the 50th Anniversary Symposium of The Fisheries Society of the British Isles, held at the University of Exeter, U.K., in July 2017. We identified several knowledge gaps but also key opportunities for fish biology to inform food security, for collective behaviour, evolutionary history and trait correlations to predict responses to environmental change and for novel analytical approaches to mine existing data sets. Overall, more integrative approaches through stronger collaborations across different fields are needed to advance our understanding of the basic biology of fish.

Concepts: Evolution, United Kingdom, English people, Overfishing, British Isles, British people, Isle of Man, British Islands

1

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has been a key agent of change in the 21st century. Given the role of ICT in changing society this research sought to explore the responses and attitudes to change from ICT professionals and ICT academics in dealing with the potentially far reaching political challenge triggered by the UK’s 2016 European Union Referendum and its decision to leave the European Union (referred to as Brexit). Whilst the vote was a UK based decision its ramifications have global implications and as such the research was not confined to the UK.

Concepts: European Union, United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, Europe, European Economic Community, 21st century, London, Isle of Man

1

Background and purpose - Increasing numbers of shoulder arthroplasty are performed internationally. The predictors of intraoperative complications when implanting primary shoulder replacements are unknown. We determined the incidence of intraoperative complications during primary shoulder arthroplasty using the National Joint Registry of England, Wales, Northern Ireland and the Isle of Man (NJR), and analyzed the associated risk factors for complications. Patients and methods - NJR data on primary shoulder arthroplasty were scrutinized for intraoperative complications. 2 analyses were performed: the first examined the incidence and predictors of any recorded complication; the second examined the incidence and predictors for intraoperative fractures specifically. Analysis of risk factors was performed using multivariable binary logistic regression modeling. Results - 12,559 primary shoulder arthroplasties were recorded, with an intraoperative complication rate of 2.5%, the majority being fractures (1.6% overall). The incidence of all complications was lower in men (RR vs. women =0.63 (95% CI 0.47-0.84)). Patients undergoing surgery for avascular necrosis (RR =2.3 (1.3-4.2)) or trauma sequelae (RR =1.6 (1.2-2.7)) had a higher risk of complications compared with OA. Patients undergoing a stemmed hemiarthroplasty (RR =1.8 (1.2-2.5)) and reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RR 1.6 (1.1-2.5)) had a higher risk of complications compared with total shoulder arthroplasty. The incidence of all complications was less in patients undergoing resurfacing arthroplasty (vs. total shoulder arthroplasty (RR 0.42 (0.24-0.73)) and when performing the superior approach (vs. deltopectoral (RR 0.56 (0.39-0.80)). Interpretation - This is the first study to use a national data set to examine risk factors for intraoperative complications during all types of primary shoulder arthroplasty, and identifies several previously unrecognized risk factors, such as surgical approach.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Logistic regression, Avascular necrosis, Sequela, Late effect, Order theory, Complication, Isle of Man

1

 Gaelic games (Gaelic football and hurling) are indigenous Irish sports with increasing global participation in recent years. Limited information is available on longitudinal injury trends. Reviews of insurance claims can reveal the economic burden of injury and guide cost-effective injury-prevention programs.

Concepts: Ireland, Football, Gaelic games, Gaelic Athletic Association, Gaelic football, Hurling, Isle of Man, Sport in Ireland