SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Irritable bowel syndrome

189

BACKGROUND: Acupuncture is used by patients as a treatment for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) but the evidence on effectiveness is limited. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture for irritable bowel syndrome in primary care when provided as an adjunct to usual care. METHODS: Design: A two-arm pragmatic randomised controlled trial.Setting: Primary care in the United Kingdom.Patients: 233 patients had irritable bowel syndrome with average duration of 13 years and score of at least 100 on the IBS Symptom Severity Score (SSS).Interventions: 116 patients were offered 10 weekly individualised acupuncture sessions plus usual care, 117 patients continued with usual care alone.Measurements: Primary outcome was the IBS SSS at three months, with outcome data collected every three months to 12 months. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference between groups at three months favouring acupuncture with a reduction in IBS Symptom Severity Score of -27.43 (95% CI: –48.66 to -6.21, p = 0.012). The number needed to treat for successful treatment (>=50 point reduction in the IBS SSS) was six (95% CI: 3 to 17), based on 49% success in the acupuncture group vs. 31% in the control group, a difference between groups of 18% (95% CI: 6% to 31%). This benefit largely persisted at 6, 9 and 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Acupuncture for irritable bowel syndrome provided an additional benefit over usual care alone. The magnitude of the effect was sustained over the longer term. Acupuncture should be considered as a treatment option to be offered in primary care alongside other evidenced based treatments.Trial RegistrationCurrent Controlled Trials ISRCTN08827905.

Concepts: Clinical trial, The Canon of Medicine, Randomized controlled trial, Statistical significance, Effectiveness, Avicenna, Irritable bowel syndrome, Flatulence

185

It is increasingly perceived that gut host-microbial interactions are important elements in the pathogenesis of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID). The most convincing evidence to date is the finding that functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) may develop in predisposed individuals following a bout of infectious gastroenteritis. There has been a great deal of interest in the potential clinical and therapeutic implications of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in IBS. However, this theory has generated much debate because the evidence is largely based on breath tests which have not been validated. The introduction of culture-independent molecular techniques provides a major advancement in our understanding of the microbial community in FGID. Results from 16S rRNA-based microbiota profiling approaches demonstrate both quantitative and qualitative changes of mucosal and faecal gut microbiota, particularly in IBS. Investigators are also starting to measure host-microbial interactions in IBS. The current working hypothesis is that abnormal microbiota activate mucosal innate immune responses which increase epithelial permeability, activate nociceptive sensory pathways and dysregulate the enteric nervous system. While we await important insights in this field, the microbiota is already a therapeutic target. Existing controlled trials of dietary manipulation, prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics and non-absorbable antibiotics are promising, although most are limited by suboptimal design and small sample size. In this article, the authors provide a critical review of current hypotheses regarding the pathogenetic involvement of microbiota in FGID and evaluate the results of microbiota-directed interventions. The authors also provide clinical guidance on modulation of gut microbiota in IBS.

Concepts: Immune system, Bacteria, Gut flora, Digestive system, Gastroenterology, Irritable bowel syndrome, Flatulence, Probiotic

174

Peppermint oil (PO) has shown promise as an IBS therapy, but previous trials have demonstrated variable efficacy and tolerability results.

Concepts: Constipation, Irritable bowel syndrome, Flatulence, Peppermint

169

Abstract. The role of Dientamoeba fragilis in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is incompletely known. We aimed to investigate whether eradication of D. fragilis alleviates symptoms in IBS. Twenty-five D. fragilis-positive IBS patients were treated with Metronidazole (MZ) or Tetracycline. The patients were mostly female (89%), and mean age (SD) was 35.1 (8.2) years. Microbiological response, evaluated 2 weeks post-treatment, was observed in 15 of 25 patients (60%), all by MZ. Clinical response, defined as adequate relief of symptoms, was observed in 7 of 22 patients (32%), all by MZ. In a logistic regression analysis, we found no significant association between clinical and microbiological response. This case study did not support our hypothesis of a simple association between D. fragilis and IBS. Some D. fragilis-infections were insufficiently treated by MZ. Further studies into the prevalence and effect of eradication of D. fragilis in IBS and into efficient treatments of D. fragilis are warranted.

Concepts: Scientific method, Regression analysis, Logistic regression, Irritable bowel syndrome, Dientamoeba fragilis, Dientamoeba

168

BACKGROUND: Previous research has suggested an interaction between personality factors and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) as well as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We therefore aimed to elucidate differences in psychological and coping functioning between patients with IBD and IBS, and to assess the relationship of disease activity with these functions. METHODS: Seventy-four patients with IBD (mean age 43±17years, range 18-82years) and 81 patients with IBS (mean age 37±12years, range 21-66years) completed the questionnaires; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Toronto Alexithymia, Experiences in Close Relationships, and Sense of Coherence. Disease activity was evaluated either by the Harvey-Bradshaw index, the Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index, or the Visual Analogue Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome. RESULTS: The study revealed that patients with IBS had higher degree of anxiety in close relationships than patients with IBD (p=0.003), and lower self-esteem (p=0.001). No other statistical differences between the whole groups IBS and IBD or between subgroups were seen. CONCLUSIONS: The fact that patients with IBS seem to have higher levels of anxiety in relationships and lower self-esteem could influence the way the patient deal with the disease and how the communication with health care professionals works out. A higher awareness of the importance of past negative life events should be taken into consideration. Whether the disease or the personal traits are the primary event should be addressed in future research.

Concepts: Inflammation, Health care provider, Patient, Ulcerative colitis, Gastroenterology, Psychometrics, Inflammatory bowel disease, Irritable bowel syndrome

168

BACKGROUND: PEG-based laxatives are considered today the gold standard for the treatment of constipation in children. PEG formulations differ in terms of composition of inactive ingredients which may have an impact on acceptance, compliance and adherence to treatment. We therefore compared the efficacy, tolerability, acceptance and compliance of a new PEG-only formulation compared to a reference PEG-electrolyte (PEG-EL) formulation in resolving faecal impaction and in the treatment of chronic constipation. METHODS: Children aged 2–16 years with functional chronic constipation for at least 2 months were randomized to receive PEG-only 0.7 g/kg/day in 2 divided doses or 6.9 g PEG-EL 1–4 sachets according to age for 4 weeks. Children with faecal impaction were randomized to receive PEG-only 1.5/g/kg in 2 divided doses until resolution or for 6 days or PEG-EL with an initial dose of 4 sachets and increasing 2 sachets a day until resolution or for 7 days. RESULTS: Ninety-six children were randomized into the study. Five patients withdrew consent before starting treatment. Three children discontinued treatment for refusal due to bad taste of the product (1 PEG-only, 2 PEG-EL); 1 (PEG-EL) for an adverse effect (abdominal pain). Intent-to-treat analysis was carried out in 49 children in the PEG-only group and 42 in the PEG-EL group.No significant differences were observed between the two treatment groups at baseline.Adequate relief of constipation in terms of normalized frequency and painless defecation of soft stools was achieved in all patients in both groups. The number of stools/week was 9.2 +/- 3.2 (mean +/- SD) in the PEG-only group and 7.8 +/- 2.4 in the PEG-EL group (p = 0.025); the number of days with stool was 22.4 +/- 5.1 in the PEG-only group and 19.6 +/- 7.2 in the PEG-EL group (p = 0.034).In the PEG-only group faecaloma resolution was observed in 5 children on the second day and in 2 children on the third day, while in the PEG-EL group it was observed in 2 children on the second day, in 3 children on the third day and in 1 child on the fifth day.Only 2 patients reported mild treatment-related adverse events: 1 child in the PEG-only group had diarrhoea and vomiting and 1 child in the PEG-EL group had abdominal pain requiring treatment discontinuation. The PEG-only preparation was better tolerated as shown by the lower frequency of nausea than in the PEG-EL group.In the PEG-only group, 96% of patients did not demonstrate any difficulties associated with treatment, as compared with 52% of patients in the PEG-EL group (p < 0.001). Also, the PEG-only formulation taste was better than that of PEG-EL (p < 0.001). The difference between the percentage of subjects who took > 80% of the prescribed dose was in favour of the PEG-only group (98% vs. 88%), though it did not reach a conventional statistical level (p = 0.062). CONCLUSION: PEG-only was better tolerated and accepted than PEG-EL in children with chronic constipation. At the higher PEG doses recommended by the manufactures children in the PEG-only group had higher and more regular soft stool frequency than PEG-EL.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01592734.

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial, Constipation, Gastroenterology, Irritable bowel syndrome, Feces, Polyethylene glycol, Fecal impaction, Enema

165

Vitamin D deficiency has been associated or implicated with the pathophysiology of the gastrointestinal conditions inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer, as well as with depression. No trials or epidemiology studies to date have investigated a link with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). A single case report has suggested a benefit in IBS of vitamin D supplementation. We hypothesised that IBS participants with vitamin D insufficiency would benefit from repletion in terms of their IBS symptoms. We undertook a pilot trial to provide data to support a power calculation and to justify a full trial.

Concepts: Immune system, Inflammation, Vitamin D, Cancer, Ulcerative colitis, Constipation, Gastroenterology, Irritable bowel syndrome

150

To determine if potential biomarkers can be used to identify subgroups of people with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) who will benefit the most or the least from a comprehensive self-management (CSM) intervention.

Concepts: Brain, Constipation, Irritable bowel syndrome, Flatulence, Parasympathetic nervous system

139

A high incidence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated with significant medical costs. Diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) is diagnosed on the basis of clinical presentation and diagnostic test results and procedures that exclude other conditions. This study was conducted to estimate the potential cost savings of a novel IBS diagnostic blood panel that tests for the presence of antibodies to cytolethal distending toxin B and anti-vinculin associated with IBS-D.

Concepts: Immune system, Diagnosis, Constipation, Gastroenterology, Irritable bowel syndrome, Flatulence

118

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated with significant morbidity in children and adolescents, and the therapeutic efficacy of available treatment options is limited. The role of vitamin D supplementation in pediatric IBS is unclear as the vitamin D status of pediatric patients with IBS is unknown. Equally, the relationship of vitamin D status with psychosomatic symptoms in children and adolescents is unclear.

Concepts: Immune system, Vitamin D, Constipation, Irritable bowel syndrome, Flatulence