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Concept: Iranian peoples


Anthropological studies based on the highly polymorphic gene, human leukocyte antigen (HLA), provide useful information for bone marrow donor registry, forensic medicine, disease association studies, as well as infertility treatment, designing peptide vaccines against tumors, and infectious or autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to determine HLA-A and HLA-B allele frequencies in 100 unrelated Lak/lᴂk/individuals from Lorestan province of Iran. Finally, we compared the results with that previously described in Iranian population. Commercial HLA-Type kits from BAG (Lich, Germany) company were used for determination of the HLA-A and HLA-B allele frequencies in genomic DNA, based on polymerase chain reaction with sequence specific primer (PCR-SSP) assay. The differences between the populations in distribution of HLA-A and HLA-B alleles were estimated by chi-squared test with Yate’s correction. The most frequent HLA-A alleles were *24 (20%), *02 (18%), *03 (12%) and *11 (10%), and the most frequent HLA-B alleles were *35 (24%), *51 (16%), *18 (6%) and *38 (6%) in Lak population. HLA-A*66 (1%), *74(1%) and HLA-B*48 (1%), *55(1%) were the least observed frequencies in Lak population. Our results based on HLA-A and HLA-B allele frequencies showed that Lak population possesses the previously reported general features of Iranians but still with unique.

Concepts: Immune system, DNA, Gene, Genetics, Polymerase chain reaction, Human leukocyte antigen, Iran, Iranian peoples


We sequenced Early Neolithic genomes from the Zagros region of Iran (eastern Fertile Crescent), where some of the earliest evidence for farming is found, and identify a previously uncharacterized population that is neither ancestral to the first European farmers nor has contributed significantly to the ancestry of modern Europeans. These people are estimated to have separated from Early Neolithic farmers in Anatolia some 46-77,000 years ago and show affinities to modern day Pakistani and Afghan populations, but particularly to Iranian Zoroastrians. We conclude that multiple, genetically differentiated hunter-gatherer populations adopted farming in SW-Asia, that components of pre-Neolithic population structure were preserved as farming spread into neighboring regions, and that the Zagros region was the cradle of eastward expansion.

Concepts: Europe, Iran, Turkey, Neolithic, Fertile Crescent, Pakistan, Iranian peoples, Mesopotamia


Aim: The purpose of this study was to characterize Y-chromosome diversity in Tajiks from Tajikistan and in Persians and Kurds from Iran. Method: Y-chromosome haplotypes were identified in 40 Tajiks, 77 Persians and 25 Kurds, using 12 short tandem repeats (STR) and 18 binary markers. Results: High genetic diversity was observed in the populations studied. Six of 12 haplogroups were common in Persians, Kurds and Tajiks, but only three haplogroups (G-M201, J-12f2 and L-M20) were the most frequent in all populations, comprising together ∼ 60% of the Y-chromosomes in the pooled data set. Analysis of genetic distances between Y-STR haplotypes revealed that the Kurds showed a great distance to the Iranian-speaking populations of Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan. The presence of Indian-specific haplogroups L-M20, H1-M52 and R2a-M124 in both Tajik samples from Afghanistan and Tajikistan demonstrates an apparent genetic affinity between Tajiks from these two regions. Conclusions: Despite the marked similarities between Y-chromosome gene pools of Iranian-speaking populations, there are differences between them, defined by many factors, including geographic and linguistic relationships.

Concepts: Genetic genealogy, Short tandem repeat, Genealogical DNA test, Afghanistan, Iranian peoples, Uzbekistan, Y-STR, Persian people


Zoroastrianism is one of the oldest extant religions in the world, originating in Persia (present-day Iran) during the second millennium BCE. Historical records indicate that migrants from Persia brought Zoroastrianism to India, but there is debate over the timing of these migrations. Here we present genome-wide autosomal, Y chromosome, and mitochondrial DNA data from Iranian and Indian Zoroastrians and neighboring modern-day Indian and Iranian populations and conduct a comprehensive genome-wide genetic analysis in these groups. Using powerful haplotype-based techniques, we find that Zoroastrians in Iran and India have increased genetic homogeneity relative to other sampled groups in their respective countries, consistent with their current practices of endogamy. Despite this, we infer that Indian Zoroastrians (Parsis) intermixed with local groups sometime after their arrival in India, dating this mixture to 690-1390 CE and providing strong evidence that Iranian Zoroastrian ancestry was maintained primarily through the male line. By making use of the rich information in DNA from ancient human remains, we also highlight admixture in the ancestors of Iranian Zoroastrians dated to 570 BCE-746 CE, older than admixture seen in any other sampled Iranian group, consistent with a long-standing isolation of Zoroastrians from outside groups. Finally, we report results, and challenges, from a genome-wide scan to identify genomic regions showing signatures of positive selection in present-day Zoroastrians that might correlate to the prevalence of particular diseases among these communities.

Concepts: DNA, Gene, Chromosome, Iran, Persian language, Iranian peoples, Zoroastrianism, Zoroastrians in Iran


The study explored the psychosocial effects of transitioning from home to an aged care home for older Iranian people.

Concepts: Iran, Pakistan, Central Asia, Afghanistan, Iranian peoples, Persian people, Zoroastrianism, Iranian languages


In 2011, load limits for manual lifting were adopted in Iran to protect workers from low back injury without prior testing of accuracy with Iranian workers. This investigation examined how accurate the adopted ACGIH TLVs at the allowable limits predict risk for LBP disorders for a group of Iranian workers using biomechanical criteria. Testing took place in the laboratory with participants completing a series of 2-handed lifting tasks as defined in the Iranian Guideline for Manual Lifting. To test accuracy, both compression and shear forces were estimated for fifteen male Iranian workers who completed 25 lift combinations that varied in height and reach with the maximal allowable load. The findings, when compared to a risk threshold of 3400 N compression and 700 N shear, showed above-threshold forces for compression and little-to-no safety margins with repetitive lifting for most lifts at torso height and below. Since Government, employers and workers use these guidelines to decide on work/workplace design; these guidelines require further review and revision based on the anthropometrics of Iranian people.

Concepts: Shear stress, Iran, Pakistan, Central Asia, Iranian peoples, Persian people, Zoroastrianism, Iranian languages


Conflict of interests is a situation when someone is in need of other people’s trust on one the hand and has personal or general interests on the other hand, resulting in conflict with the given responsibility. In this research work, an attempt was made to find the relation between declarations of conflict of interests and reporting positive outcomes in the dental journals in Iran (2000-2016). In this analytical/cross-sectional study, first Health and Biomedical Information was searched and all the Persian and English dental journals published in Iran were collected. Then, all the papers published in the journals from December 2000 to December 2016 were collected and categorized in terms of the year of publication, author or authors' affiliations, Persian and English journal, type of the substance or the drug used (including the manufacturing company), declarations of conflict of interests and the positive or negative conclusion of the report. Data were analyzed with the Fisher’s exact test and Chi squared test, using the program SPSS 18. In numerical analysis, the significance was set at P < 0.05. Seventeen dental journals in Persian and English were analyzed: 10 in English and 7 in Persian. Reviewing these studies showed that of 1021 articles in Persian, in 128 cases there was no mention of a declaration of conflict of interests and in 11 cases, the COI had been stated. In addition, from 1220 articles in English, in 825 cases there was no mention of declarations of conflict of interests and in 45 cases, the declarations of COI had been mentioned. There was no significant relation between the COI and 'no' COI and the reporting of positive outcomes in papers in Iranian dental journals in terms of the journal type, year of publication and the journals' guarantee form (P = 0.25, P = 0.41 and P = 0.09). A total of 83% of studies with declarations of COI had one positive outcome, with a significant relationship in this field; however, in 73% of studies with no COI, there was one positive outcome, too. In general, the society expects that doctors would not consider any incentives except the health of the patients in the efforts made by them. The severity of the consequences of COI is of higher value when the patients' health is endangered due to it. In addition, COI might change the attitude and approach of other doctors and peers.

Concepts: Statistical tests, Iran, Fisher's exact test, Exact test, Chi-square test, Chi-square distribution, Central Asia, Iranian peoples


Objective: Ageing population and noticeable changes in lifestyle in developing countries like Iran caused an increase in cancer incidence. This requires organized cancer prevention and screening programs in population level, but most importantly community should be aware of these programs and willing to use them. This study explored existing evidence on public awareness and practice, as well as, adherence to cancer screening in Iranian population. Methods: Major English databases including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and domestic Persian databases i.e., SID, Magiran, and Barakat search engines were searched. All publications with focus on Iranian public awareness about cancer prevention, screening, and early detection programs which were published until August 2015, were explored in this systematic review. For this purpose, we used sensitive Persian phrases/key terms and English keywords which were extracted from medical subject headings (MeSH). Taking PRISMA guidelines into considerations eligible documents, were evaluated and abstracted by two separate reviewers. Results: We found 72 articles relevant to this topic. Screening tests were known to, or being utilized by only a limited number of Iranians. Most Iranian women relied on physical examination particularly self-examination, instead of taking mammogram, as the most standard test to find breast tumors. Less than half of the average-risk adult populations were familiar with colorectal cancer risk factors and its screening tests, and only very limited number of studies reported taking at least one time colonoscopy or FOBT, at most 5.0% and 15.0%, respectively. Around half of women were familiar with cervical cancer and Pap-smear test with less than 45% having completed at least one lifetime test. The lack of health insurance coverage was a barrier to participate in screening tests. Furthermore some people would not select to be screened only because they do not know how or where they can receive these services. Conclusion: Low awareness and suboptimal use of screening tests in Iran calls for effective programs to enhance intention and compliance to screening, improving the patient-physician communication, identifying barriers for screening and providing tailored public awareness and screening programs.

Concepts: Cancer, Breast cancer, Oncology, Population, Colorectal cancer, Iran, Iranian peoples, Persian people


Cadmium is an important environmental contaminant. High consumption of chemical fertilizers and industrial activities in recent decades has caused people to be worried about exposure to cadmium. There is no policy for environmental and biological monitoring of exposure to cadmium in the general population in Iran. This study was aimed to review cadmium content in consuming foods and biological samples in Iran, systematically. We developed a comprehensive search strategy and used it to search on Web of Science, Scopus, Science Direct, and Scientific Information Database until 28 December 2016. The totals of 285 articles were identified and finally 31 original papers were selected. Cadmium contamination was found in Iranian food groups such as rice, cereal and legumes, canned tuna fish, vegetables, fruit juice, and egg. This study showed that cadmium amount in 75% of the consumed rice samples (domestic and imported) was higher than the maximum limits approved by institute of standards and industrial research of Iran. Lettuce samples in Yazd were recorded the highest concentration of cadmium compared to other studies. In addition, high amount of cadmium was observed in the blood of the general population. Regarding the cadmium contamination in food and blood samples in Iran, policies must be adopted to reduce exposure to cadmium through different matrices as much as possible.

Concepts: Fish, Food, Nitrogen, Fruit, Iran, Citation index, Tuna, Iranian peoples


Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) account for 76% of deaths in Iran and this number is on the rise, parallel to global rates. Many risk factors associated with NCDs are preventable; however it is first necessary to conduct observational studies to identify relevant risk factors, and the most appropriate approach to control them. Iran is a multi-ethnic country, therefore the Ministry of Health and Medical Education sought to launch a nationwide cohort study-the Prospective Epidemiological Research Studies in IrAN (PERSIAN)-in order to identify the most prevalent NCDs among Iranian ethnicities, and to investigate effective methods of prevention. The PERSIAN cohort consists of four population-based cohorts, the adult component, presented in this article, is a prospective cohort including 180,000 individuals aged 35-70 years, from 18 distinct areas of Iran. Upon joining, participants respond to interviewer-administered questionnaires. Blood, urine, hair and nail samples are collected and stored. To ensure consistency, centrally-purchased equipment is sent to all sites, and the same team trains all personnel. Routine visits and quality assurance/control measures are taken to ensure protocol adherence. Participants are followed for 15 years post-enrollment. The PERSIAN cohort is currently in the enrollment phase; cohort profiles will soon emerge.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Disease, Demography, Incidence, Biostatistics, Iran, Iranian peoples, Iranian languages