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Concept: Iranian languages


Arid central Asia (ACA) is one of the most arid regions in the mid-latitudes and one of the main potential dust sources for the northern hemisphere. The lack of in situ early Pleistocene loess/dust records from ACA hinders our comprehensive understanding of the spatio-temporal record of aeolian loess accumulation and long term climatic changes in Asia as a whole. Here, we report the results of sedimentological, chronological and climatic studies of early Pleistocene loess-palaeosol sequences (LPS) from the northeastern Iranian Golestan Province (NIGP) in the western part of ACA. Our results reveal that: 1) Accumulation of loess on the NIGP commenced at ~2.4-1.8 Ma, making it the oldest loess known so far in western ACA; 2) the climate during the early Pleistocene in the NIGP was semi-arid, but wetter, warmer, and less windy than during the late Pleistocene and present interglacial; 3) orbital-scale palaeoclimatic changes in ACA during the early Pleistoceneare in-phase with those of monsoonal Asia, a relationship which was probably related to the growth and decay of northern hemisphere ice sheets.

Concepts: Time, Climate, Asia, Iran, Steppe, Northern Hemisphere, Central Asia, Iranian languages


The study explored the psychosocial effects of transitioning from home to an aged care home for older Iranian people.

Concepts: Iran, Pakistan, Central Asia, Afghanistan, Iranian peoples, Persian people, Zoroastrianism, Iranian languages


In 2011, load limits for manual lifting were adopted in Iran to protect workers from low back injury without prior testing of accuracy with Iranian workers. This investigation examined how accurate the adopted ACGIH TLVs at the allowable limits predict risk for LBP disorders for a group of Iranian workers using biomechanical criteria. Testing took place in the laboratory with participants completing a series of 2-handed lifting tasks as defined in the Iranian Guideline for Manual Lifting. To test accuracy, both compression and shear forces were estimated for fifteen male Iranian workers who completed 25 lift combinations that varied in height and reach with the maximal allowable load. The findings, when compared to a risk threshold of 3400 N compression and 700 N shear, showed above-threshold forces for compression and little-to-no safety margins with repetitive lifting for most lifts at torso height and below. Since Government, employers and workers use these guidelines to decide on work/workplace design; these guidelines require further review and revision based on the anthropometrics of Iranian people.

Concepts: Shear stress, Iran, Pakistan, Central Asia, Iranian peoples, Persian people, Zoroastrianism, Iranian languages


Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) account for 76% of deaths in Iran and this number is on the rise, parallel to global rates. Many risk factors associated with NCDs are preventable; however it is first necessary to conduct observational studies to identify relevant risk factors, and the most appropriate approach to control them. Iran is a multi-ethnic country, therefore the Ministry of Health and Medical Education sought to launch a nationwide cohort study-the Prospective Epidemiological Research Studies in IrAN (PERSIAN)-in order to identify the most prevalent NCDs among Iranian ethnicities, and to investigate effective methods of prevention. The PERSIAN cohort consists of four population-based cohorts, the adult component, presented in this article, is a prospective cohort including 180,000 individuals aged 35-70 years, from 18 distinct areas of Iran. Upon joining, participants respond to interviewer-administered questionnaires. Blood, urine, hair and nail samples are collected and stored. To ensure consistency, centrally-purchased equipment is sent to all sites, and the same team trains all personnel. Routine visits and quality assurance/control measures are taken to ensure protocol adherence. Participants are followed for 15 years post-enrollment. The PERSIAN cohort is currently in the enrollment phase; cohort profiles will soon emerge.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Disease, Demography, Incidence, Biostatistics, Iran, Iranian peoples, Iranian languages


The Strange Stories test is one of the most commonly used tests to evaluate advanced “theory of mind,” i.e. attribution of mental states. Normative data and psychometric properties of a new Farsi translation of this test were evaluated in a large community-based sample of Iranian school-aged children.

Concepts: Psychometrics, Mind, Iran, Theory of mind, Normative, Iranian languages


Iran lacks a national registry reporting the data of central nervous system (CNS) tumors in children. Consequently, treatment success and failure rates are unknown, and a centralized system for disease-management recommendations does not exist.

Concepts: Central nervous system, Nervous system, Brain, Iran, Persian language, Central Asia, Iranian peoples, Iranian languages


Nordic is one of the most popular questionnaires for evaluating Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs), but no studies have been reported on the reliability and validity of this questionnaire in Iran.

Concepts: Iran, Persian language, Central Asia, Iranian peoples, Persian people, Iranian languages, Tabriz


Cardiovascular risk factors begin in childhood and adolescence. This study aimed at assessing serum lipids and prevalence of Dyslipidemia in 11-18 year old students of Birjand.

Concepts: Cardiovascular disease, Childhood, Lipid, Adolescence, Lipid bilayer, Iranian languages


To study the association of weight status with food insecurity (FI) and socio-economic status (SES) in Azeri and Kurd ethnic groups living in Urmia city, North-Western Iran.

Concepts: United Kingdom, Iran, Persian language, Iranian peoples, Kurdish language, Iranian architecture, Persian people, Iranian languages


Meningioma is among the most common slow growing central nervous neoplasms, which recurs locally despite the benign histologic features. The aim of this study was to evaluate osteopontin and ki67 expressions in different histologic grades of meningioma in a group of Iranian people.

Concepts: Iran, Persian language, Central Asia, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Iranian peoples, Iranian languages, Uzbeks