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Concept: Ion-exchange resin


In this study, the efficiency of six ion exchange resins to reduce the dissolved organic matter (DOM) from a biologically treated newsprint mill effluent was evaluated and the dominant removal mechanism of residual organics was established using advanced organic characterisations techniques. Among the resins screened, TAN1 possessed favourable Freundlich parameters, high resin capacity and solute affinity, closely followed by Marathon MSA and Marathon WBA. The removal efficiency of colour and lignin residuals was generally good for the anion exchange resins, greater than 50% and 75% respectively. In terms of the DOM fractions removal measured through liquid chromatography-organic carbon and nitrogen detector (LC-OCND), the resins mainly targeted the removal of humic and fulvic acids of molecular weight ranging between 500 and 1000gmol(-1), the portion expected to contribute the most to the aromaticity of the effluent. For the anion exchange resins, physical adsorption operated along with ion exchange mechanism assisting to remove neutral and transphilic acid fractions of DOM. The column studies confirmed TAN1 being the best of those screened, exhibited the longest mass transfer zone and maximum treatable volume of effluent. The treatable effluent volume with 50% reduction in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was 4.8 L for TAN1 followed by Marathon MSA - 3.6L, Marathon 11 - 2.0L, 21K-XLT - 1.5L and Marathon WBA - 1.2L. The cation exchange resin G26 was not effective in DOM removal as the maximum DOC removal obtained was only 27%. The resin capacity could not be completely restored for any of the resins; however, a maximum restoration up to 74% and 93% was achieved for TAN1 and Marathon WBA resins. While this feasibility study indicates the potential option of using ion exchange resins for the reclamation of paper mill effluent, the need for improving the regeneration protocols to restore the resin efficiency is also identified. Similarly, care should be taken while employing LC-OCND for characterising resin-treated effluents, as the resin degradation is expected to contribute some organic carbon moieties misleading the actual performance of resin.

Concepts: Chemistry, Atom, Molecule, Cation exchange capacity, Ion-exchange resin, Hydrogen, Water softening, Humus


Acid mine drainage is a natural process occurring when sulfide minerals such as pyrite are exposed to water and oxygen. The bacterially catalyzed oxidation of pyrite is particularly common in coal mining operations and usually results in a low-pH water polluted with toxic metals and sulfate. Although high sulfate concentrations can be reduced by gypsum precipitation, removing lower concentrations (below 1200 mg/L) remains a challenge. Therefore, this work sought to investigate the application of ion exchange resins for sulfate sorption. The macroporous type 1 strong base IX resin Purolite A500 was selected for bath and fixed-bed sorption experiments using synthetic sulfate solutions. Equilibrium experiments showed that sulfate loading on the resin can be described by the Langmuir isotherm with a maximum uptake of 59 mg mL-resin(-1). The enthalpy of sorption was determined as +2.83 kJ mol(-1), implying an endothermic physisorption process that occurred with decreasing entropy (-15.5 J mol(-1).K(-1)). Fixed-bed experiments were performed at different bed depths, flow rates, and initial sulfate concentrations. The Miura and Hashimoto model predicted a maximum bed loading of 25-30 g L-bed(-1) and indicated that both film diffusion (3.2 × 10(-3) cm s(-1) to 22.6 × 10(-3) cm s(-1)) and surface diffusion (1.46 × 10(-7) cm(2) s(-1) to 5.64 × 10(-7) cm(2) s(-1)) resistances control the sorption process. It was shown that IX resins are an alternative for the removal of sulfate from mine waters; they ensure very low residual concentrations, particularly in effluents where the sulfate concentration is below the gypsum solubility threshold.

Concepts: Ion-exchange resin, Water pollution, Adsorption, Acid, Hydrogen, Sulfur, Chemistry, Water


Caramel enriched in di-D-fructose dianhydrides (DFAs, a family of prebiotic cyclic fructodisaccharides) is a functional food with beneficial properties for health. The aim of this work was to study the conversion of fructose into DFAs catalyzed by acid ion-exchange resin, in order to establish a simplified mechanism of the caramelization reaction and a kinetic model for DFA formation. Batch reactor experiments were carried out in a 250 mL spherical glass flask and afforded up to 50%DFA yields. The mechanism proposed entails order 2 reactions that describe fructose conversion on DFAs or formation of by-products such as HMF or melanoidins. A third order 1 reaction defines DFA transformation into fructosyl-DFAs or fructo-oligosaccharides. The influence of fructose concentration, resin loading and temperature was studied to calculate the kinetic parameters necessary to scale up the process.

Concepts: Water, Thermodynamics, Caramelization, Sugar, Caramel, Ion-exchange resin, Water softening, Chemical reaction


Simultaneous removal of thallium (Tl) and chloride from a highly saline industrial wastewater was investigated using modified anion ion exchange resins. The removal of thallium was mainly driven by the exchange of Tl-chlorocomplex (TlCl4(-)) formed in the oxidation of thallous (Tl (I)) to thallic ion (Tl (III)) by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) under saline conditions. Over 97% of thallium and chloride removal was achieved using the modified resins, with a wide optimal conditions found to be H2O2 dosage 1.0-25.0mL/L, pH 1.6-4.3, and flow rate 0.5-4.7mL/L. The modified resins had an exchange capacity of 4.771mg Tl/g dry resins for thallium and 1800mg Cl/g dry resins for chloride. Stable regeneration could be achieved with the modified resins: over 97% of thallium and 90% of chloride can be eluted using Na2SO3 solution and alternating hot (60°C) H2SO4 and cold (25°C) water, and over 98% removal of thallium and chloride was achieved after five consecutive regeneration cycles.

Concepts: Oxygen, Ion-exchange resin, Water, Hydrochloric acid, Ion, Hydrogen peroxide, Hydrogen, Oxide


The objective of this study was to develop delivery systems for taste masking based on multiparticulates coated with Kollicoat(®) Smartseal 30 D formulated as liquid oral suspensions. Coating of particles containing bitter drugs with Kollicoat(®) Smartseal reduced drug leaching into aqueous medium, especially when increasing pH, therefore can be used for the formulation of liquid dosage forms. Application of an intermediate layer of ion exchange resins between drug layer and coating can further decrease drug leaching into aqueous vehicle that is beneficial in terms of taste masking. Using optimised compositions of liquid vehicles such as addition of sugar alcohols and ion exchange resin, reconstitutable or ready-to-use liquid dosage forms with micropellets can be developed with bitter taste protection after redispersion lasting longer than 3 weeks which exceeds the usual period of application.

Concepts: Resin, Drug, Carbon dioxide, Coating, Pharmacology, Water softening, Water, Ion-exchange resin


A novel high throughout (HTR) ion-exchange (IEX) resin workflow has been developed for characterizing ion exchange equilibrium of commercial and experimental IEX resins against a range of different applications where water environment differs from site to site. Owing to its much higher throughput, Design Of Experiment (DOE) methodology can be easily applied for studying the effects of multiple factors on resin performance. Two case studies will be presented to illustrate the efficacy of the combined HTR workflow and DOE method. In case study one, a series of anion exchange resins have been screened for selective removal of nitrate, nitrite in water environments consisting of multiple other anions, varied pH and ionic strength. The Response Surface Model (RSM) is developed to statistically correlate the resin performance with the water composition and predict the best resin candidate. In case study two, the same HTR workflow and DOE method have been applied for screening different cation exchange resins in terms of the selective removal of magnesium, calcium and barium cations from high Total Dissolved Salt (TDS) water. A master DOE model including all of the cation exchange resins is created to predict divalent cation removal by different IEX resins under specific conditions, from which the best resin candidates can be identified. The successful adoption of HTR workflow and DOE method for studying the ion exchange of IEX resins can significantly reduce the resources and time to address industry and application needs.

Concepts: Ion-exchange resin, Ammonia, Ion exchange, Nitrate, Cation exchange capacity, Water softening, Scientific method, Ion


The objective was to evaluate taste masking of azithromycin (AZI) by ion exchange resins (IERs) and the formation of covalent semi interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) beads using chitosan (CS) and sodium carboxylated agarose (SCAG) for sustained release of drug.

Concepts: Sodium, Resins, Ion-exchange resin, Resin, Polymers, Polymer chemistry, Polymer


A novel multicomponent adsorption equilibrium model for proteins on ion-exchange resins is developed on a statistical thermodynamic basis including surface coverage effects and protein-resin and protein-protein interactions. The resulting model exhibits a general competitive Langmuirian behavior and was applied to the study and optimization of the separation of monoclonal antibody charge variants on two strong cation exchangers. The model accounts explicitly for the effect of both pH and salt concentration, and its parameters can be determined in diluted conditions, that is, through physically sound assumptions, all model parameters can be obtained using solely experiments in diluted conditions, and be used to make predictions in overloaded conditions. The parameterization of the model and optimization of the separation is based on a two-step approach. First, gradient experiments in diluted conditions are undertaken in order to determine the model parameters. Based on these experiments and on information about the proteins of interest and the stationary phase used, all the model parameters can be estimated. Second, using the parameterized model, an initial Pareto optimization is undertaken where overloaded operating conditions are investigated. Experiments from this Pareto set are then used to refine the estimation of the model parameters. A second Pareto optimization can then be undertaken, this time with the refined parameters. This can be repeated until a satisfactory set of model parameters is found. This iterative approach is shown to be extremely efficient and to provide large amounts of knowledge based on only a few experiments. It is shown that due to the strong physical foundation of the model and the very low number of adjustable parameters, the number of iterations is expected to be at most two or three. Furthermore, the model based tool is improved as more experimental knowledge is provided, allowing for better estimations of the chromatographic processes considered at each iteration. This makes it a very suitable tool for the design and the development of preparative and industrial purification processes, including the determination of both the optimal operating conditions, as well as the allowable process operating space.

Concepts: Ion-exchange resin, Cation exchange capacity, Chromatography, Iteration, Analytical chemistry, Mathematics, Water softening, Protein


To evaluate the physicochemical characteristics of clindamycin HCl in a complex form (resinate) with ion exchange resin (Amberlite IRP69).

Concepts: Water softening, Ion-exchange resin


Prehydrolysis of wood biomass prior to kraft cooking provides a stream containing hemicellulose-derived saccharides (HDSs) but also undesired non-saccharide compounds (NSCs) that were resulted from lignin depolymerization and carbohydrate degradation. In this study, a combined process consisting of lime treatment, resin adsorption, and gel filtration was developed to separate HDSs from NSCs. The macro-lignin impurities that accounted for 32.2% of NSCs were removed by lime treatment at 1.2% dosage with negligible HDSs loss. The majority of NSCs, lignin-derived phenolics, were eliminated by mixed bed ion exchange resin, elevating NSCs removal to 94.0%. The remaining NSCs, furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural, were excluded from HDSs by gel filtration. Chemical composition analysis showed that xylooligosaccharides (XOS) with the degree of depolymerization from 2 to 6 accounted for 28% of the total purified HDSs.

Concepts: Carbohydrate, Ion-exchange resin, Separation, Cell wall, Wood, Lignin, Cellulose, Chemical engineering