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Concept: Iodine

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Thermoelectric devices that are flexible and optically transparent hold unique promise for future electronics. However, development of invisible thermoelectric elements is hindered by the lack of p-type transparent thermoelectric materials. Here we present the superior room-temperature thermoelectric performance of p-type transparent copper iodide (CuI) thin films. Large Seebeck coefficients and power factors of the obtained CuI thin films are analysed based on a single-band model. The low-thermal conductivity of the CuI films is attributed to a combined effect of the heavy element iodine and strong phonon scattering. Accordingly, we achieve a large thermoelectric figure of merit of ZT=0.21 at 300 K for the CuI films, which is three orders of magnitude higher compared with state-of-the-art p-type transparent materials. A transparent and flexible CuI-based thermoelectric element is demonstrated. Our findings open a path for multifunctional technologies combing transparent electronics, flexible electronics and thermoelectricity.

Concepts: Electricity, Optical fiber, Iodine, Thermoelectric effect, Thermoelectricity, Thermoelectric cooling

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Iodine deficiency in infants can damage the developing brain and increase mortality. Present recommendations state that oral iodised oil should be given to breastfeeding mothers to correct iodine deficiency in infancy when iodised salt is not available, and that direct supplementation should be given to infants who are not being breastfed or receiving iodine-fortified complimentary foods. However, there is little evidence for these recommendations. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of direct versus indirect supplementation of the infant.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Infant, Breastfeeding, Baby bottle, Pacifier, Iodine

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Effective capture of radioactive organic iodides from nuclear waste remains a significant challenge due to the drawbacks of current adsorbents such as low uptake capacity, high cost, and non-recyclability. We report here a general approach to overcome this challenge by creating radioactive organic iodide molecular traps through functionalization of metal-organic framework materials with tertiary amine-binding sites. The molecular trap exhibits a high CH3I saturation uptake capacity of 71 wt% at 150 °C, which is more than 340% higher than the industrial adsorbent Ag(0)@MOR under identical conditions. These functionalized metal-organic frameworks also serve as good adsorbents at low temperatures. Furthermore, the resulting adsorbent can be recycled multiple times without loss of capacity, making recyclability a reality. In combination with its chemical and thermal stability, high capture efficiency and low cost, the adsorbent demonstrates promise for industrial radioactive organic iodides capture from nuclear waste. The capture mechanism was investigated by experimental and theoretical methods.Capturing radioactive organic iodides from nuclear waste is important for safe nuclear energy usage, but remains a significant challenge. Here, Li and co-workers fabricate a stable metal-organic framework functionalized with tertiary amine groups that exhibits high capacities for radioactive organic iodides uptake.

Concepts: Amino acid, Amine, Chemistry, Nuclear fission, Iodine, Recycling, Waste, Radioactive waste

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Despite the introduction of salt iodization programmes as national measures to control iodine deficiency, several European countries are still suffering from mild iodine deficiency (MID). In iodine sufficient or mildly iodine deficient areas, iodine deficiency during pregnancy frequently appears in case the maternal thyroid gland cannot meet the demand for increasing production of thyroid hormones (TH) and its effect may be damaging for the neurodevelopment of the foetus. MID during pregnancy may lead to hypothyroxinaemia in the mother and/or elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in the foetus, and these conditions have been found to be related to mild and subclinical cognitive and psychomotor deficits in neonates, infants and children. The consequences depend upon the timing and severity of the hypothyroxinaemia. However, it needs to be noted that it is difficult to establish a direct link between maternal iodine deficiency and maternal hypothyroxinaemia, as well as between maternal iodine deficiency and elevated neonatal TSH levels at birth. Finally, some studies suggest that iodine supplementation from the first trimester until the end of pregnancy may decrease the risk of cognitive and psychomotor developmental delay in the offspring.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Infant, Thyroid-stimulating hormone, Hypothyroidism, Thyroid, Thyroid hormone, Iodine, Triiodothyronine

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Legislation enacted to curb methamphetamine production has only temporarily succeeded. Experiencing a recent increase in burns as a result of the new one-pot method, we compared methamphetamine related burn patients who utilized the previous anhydrous ammonia method of production to current patients who largely used the new one-pot method of production.

Concepts: Ammonia, Iodine, Lithium, Methylamine

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Background Iodine deficiency (ID) still now represents one of the major worldwide health problems. ID is the result of insufficient dietary iodine intake. Iodine is an essential micronutrient but scarcely presents in nature. The main strategy for the correction of iodine deficiency is the fortification of table salt with iodide/iodine but Italy is far from reaching an iodized salt use higher 90% of population. Also because of the evidence for the risk on blood pressure, it is recommended to decrease the daily salt intake to less than 5g/d. An opportunity to increase the iodine intake is the possibility to introduce iodine fortification in the industrial processing foods. Aim The aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of a diet containing iodized foods enriched during industry processing with protected iodized salt (Presal®). Subjects and Methods The evaluation of increasing of iodine intake was assessed by measuring the urinary iodine excretion (UIE) in 30 healthy volunteers who added to own alimentary habits a basket of iodine enriched foodstuffs. Results Median UIE at baseline was 105 mcg/L, 156 mcg/L during the enriched diet and 90.5 mcg/L a week after withdrawal of enriched diet. Conclusions Stable iodized salt (Presal®) represent a good way to introduce iodine with the normal diet without increasing the normal consumption of salt for the healthy problems related to the blood pressure. The availability of stable iodized salt (Presal®) allows the preservation of iodine after cooking.

Concepts: Nutrition, Sodium chloride, Thyroid, Normal distribution, Iodine, Salt, Iodine deficiency, Edible salt

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Background: There is a concern regarding the use of iodinated contrast agents (ICA) for chest and neck computed tomography (CT) to localize metastatases in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). This is because the iodine in ICA can compete with (131)I and interfere with subsequent whole scans or radioactive iodine treatment. The required period for patients to eliminate the excess iodine is not clear. Therefore, knowing the period for iodine levels to return to baseline after the injection of ICA would permit a more reliable indication of CT for DTC patients. The most widely used marker to assess the plasmatic iodine pool is the urinary iodine (UI) concentration, which can be collected over a period of 24 hours (24U) or as a single-spot urinary sample (sU). As 24U collections are more difficult to perform, sU samples are preferable. It has not been established, however, if the measurement of iodine in sU is accurate for situations of excess iodine. Methods: We evaluated 25 patients with DTC who received ICA to perform chest or neck CT. They collected 24U and sU urinary samples before the CT scan and 1 week and 1, 2, and 3 months after the test. UI was quantified by a semiautomated colorimetric method. Results: Baseline median UI levels were 21.8 μg/dL for 24U and 26 μg/dL for sU. One week after ICA, UI median levels were very high for all patients, 800 μg/dL. One month after ICA, however, UI median levels returned to baseline in all patients, 19.0 μg/dL for 24U and 20 μg/dL for sU. Although the values of median UI obtained from sU and 24U samples were signicantly different, we observed a significant correlation between samples collected in 24U and sU in all evaluated periods. Conclusion: One month is required for UI to return to its baseline value after the use of ICA and for patients (after total thyroidectomy and radioiodine therapy) to eliminate the excess of iodine. In addition, sU samples, although not statistically similar to 24U values, can be used as a good marker to evaluate patients suspected of contamination with iodine.

Concepts: Chernobyl disaster, Nuclear medicine, Isotopes of iodine, Medical imaging, Radiography, Iodine, Iodine-131, Iodine-129

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Background: Breastmilk iodine levels may vary temporally in response to recent changes in dietary iodine intake. We assessed the effect of and time to peak breastmilk iodine levels after potassium iodine ingestion, which has never been studied and is important toward interpretation of studies of breastmilk iodine measurements. Methods: Sixteen healthy lactating Boston-area women with no known thyroid disease were each given 600 μg oral potassium iodide (KI) (456 μg iodine) after an overnight fast. Iodine was measured in breastmilk and urine at baseline and hourly for 8 hours following iodine intake. All dietary iodine ingested during the study period was also measured. Results: Mean age of mothers was 30.2±4.1 (SD) years. Median (interquartile range [IQR]) baseline breastmilk and urine iodine levels were 45.5 μg/L (IQR 34.5-169.0) and 67.5 μg/L (IQR 57.5-140.0), respectively. Following 600 μg KI administration, median increase in breastmilk iodine levels above baseline was 280.5 μg/L (IQR 71.5-338.0), and median peak breastmilk iodine concentration was 354 μg/L (IQR 315-495). Median time to peak breastmilk iodine levels following KI administration was 6 hours (IQR 5-7). Dietary iodine sources provided an additional 36-685 μg iodine intake during the 8-hour study. Conclusions: Following ingestion of 600 μg KI, there is a measurable rise in breastmilk iodine concentrations, with peak levels occurring at 6 hours. These findings strongly suggest that breastmilk iodine concentrations should be interpreted in relation to recent iodine intake.

Concepts: Chernobyl disaster, Median, Interquartile range, Iodine, Iodine deficiency, Potassium iodide, Iodide, Sodium iodide

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Context:In recent years changes in screening strategies for congenital hypothyroidism (CH) led to an increased detection of mild forms of CH, associated with eutopic thyroid gland.Objectives:We aimed to determine the clinical evolution of CH with eutopic thyroid gland and to find out prognostic factors at diagnosis and follow-up.Patients and Methods:We retrospectively analyzed a group of 84 children with CH and eutopic thyroid gland treated at our institution. They all underwent clinical re-evaluation after the age of 3, based on thyroid function testing after l-thyroxine therapy withdrawal, thyroid ultrasonography, and (123)I scintigraphy with perchlorate discharge test. Genetic analysis was performed in selected cases.Results:At re-evaluation, 34.5% of patients showed permanent hypothyroidism and needed l-thyroxine reintroduction, 27.4% had persistent hyperthyrotropinemia (TSH 5-10 mU/L), and 38.1% had transient hypothyroidism. Major risk factors for permanent CH were prematurity, first-degree familial history of goiter/nodules, thyroid hypoplasia at diagnosis, and high l-thyroxine requirements at follow-up. Iodine organification defects were found in 29.7% of patients, 30% of whom harbored DUOX2 mutations. TSH receptor gene mutations were found in 8.7% of patients with persistent thyroid dysfunction and negative perchlorate discharge test.Conclusions:Only one-third of patients with CH and eutopic thyroid gland needed to continue l-thyroxine therapy after re-evaluation. A frequent finding was the persistence of mild hyperthyrotropinemia. The evolution of CH remains difficult to predict, although different clinical features might suggest different outcomes. Mutations in the genes commonly linked to mild forms of CH were documented in a minority of cases.

Concepts: Thyroid disease, Hypothyroidism, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Thyroid, Thyroid hormone, Iodine, Endocrine system, Congenital hypothyroidism

27

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a key element in thyroid hormone biosynthesis. It is the substrate used by thyroid peroxidase for oxidation and incorporation of iodine into thyroglobulin, a process known as organification. The main enzymes composing the H2O2- generating system are the dual oxidase 2 (DUOX2) and the recently described DUOX maturation factor 2 (DUOXA2). Defects in these reactions lead to reduced thyroid hormone synthesis and hypothyroidism, with consequent increased TSH secretion and goiter. Since the first report in 2002 of DUOX2 mutations causing congenital hypothryoidism (CH), to date 25 different mutations have been described. Affected patients show a positive perchlorate discharge test and high phenotypic variability, ranging from transient to permanent forms of CH. Up to now, only two cases of CH due to DUOXA2 defects have been published. They also suggest the existence of a great genotype-phenotype variability. The phenotypic expression is probably influenced by genetic background and environmental factors. DUOX and DUOXA constitute a redundant system in which DUOX1/DUOXA1 can at least partially replace the function of DUOX2/DUOXA2. Furthermore, increased nutritional iodide could ensure a better use of H2O2 provided by DUOX1.

Concepts: Oxygen, Redox, Hydrogen peroxide, Hypothyroidism, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Thyroid, Thyroid hormone, Iodine