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Concept: Intravenous therapy


Intravenous fluid administration is an essential component of sepsis management, but a positive fluid balance has been associated with worse prognosis. We analyzed whether a positive fluid balance and its persistence over time was an independent prognostic factor in septic patients.

Concepts: Medical terms, Intravenous therapy, Prognosis


Background Comparative clinical effects of balanced crystalloids and saline are uncertain, particularly in noncritically ill patients cared for outside an intensive care unit (ICU). Methods We conducted a single-center, pragmatic, multiple-crossover trial comparing balanced crystalloids (lactated Ringer’s solution or Plasma-Lyte A) with saline among adults who were treated with intravenous crystalloids in the emergency department and were subsequently hospitalized outside an ICU. The type of crystalloid that was administered in the emergency department was assigned to each patient on the basis of calendar month, with the entire emergency department crossing over between balanced crystalloids and saline monthly during the 16-month trial. The primary outcome was hospital-free days (days alive after discharge before day 28). Secondary outcomes included major adverse kidney events within 30 days - a composite of death from any cause, new renal-replacement therapy, or persistent renal dysfunction (defined as an elevation of the creatinine level to ≥200% of baseline) - all censored at hospital discharge or 30 days, whichever occurred first. Results A total of 13,347 patients were enrolled, with a median crystalloid volume administered in the emergency department of 1079 ml and 88.3% of the patients exclusively receiving the assigned crystalloid. The number of hospital-free days did not differ between the balanced-crystalloids and saline groups (median, 25 days in each group; adjusted odds ratio with balanced crystalloids, 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92 to 1.04; P=0.41). Balanced crystalloids resulted in a lower incidence of major adverse kidney events within 30 days than saline (4.7% vs. 5.6%; adjusted odds ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.70 to 0.95; P=0.01). Conclusions Among noncritically ill adults treated with intravenous fluids in the emergency department, there was no difference in hospital-free days between treatment with balanced crystalloids and treatment with saline. (Funded by the Vanderbilt Institute for Clinical and Translational Research and others; SALT-ED number, NCT02614040 .).

Concepts: Hospital, Intravenous fluids, Intravenous therapy, Odds ratio, Lactic acid, Lactated Ringer's solution, Saline, Hartmann's Solution


Background Both balanced crystalloids and saline are used for intravenous fluid administration in critically ill adults, but it is not known which results in better clinical outcomes. Methods In a pragmatic, cluster-randomized, multiple-crossover trial conducted in five intensive care units at an academic center, we assigned 15,802 adults to receive saline (0.9% sodium chloride) or balanced crystalloids (lactated Ringer’s solution or Plasma-Lyte A) according to the randomization of the unit to which they were admitted. The primary outcome was a major adverse kidney event within 30 days - a composite of death from any cause, new renal-replacement therapy, or persistent renal dysfunction (defined as an elevation of the creatinine level to ≥200% of baseline) - all censored at hospital discharge or 30 days, whichever occurred first. Results Among the 7942 patients in the balanced-crystalloids group, 1139 (14.3%) had a major adverse kidney event, as compared with 1211 of 7860 patients (15.4%) in the saline group (marginal odds ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84 to 0.99; conditional odds ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82 to 0.99; P=0.04). In-hospital mortality at 30 days was 10.3% in the balanced-crystalloids group and 11.1% in the saline group (P=0.06). The incidence of new renal-replacement therapy was 2.5% and 2.9%, respectively (P=0.08), and the incidence of persistent renal dysfunction was 6.4% and 6.6%, respectively (P=0.60). Conclusions Among critically ill adults, the use of balanced crystalloids for intravenous fluid administration resulted in a lower rate of the composite outcome of death from any cause, new renal-replacement therapy, or persistent renal dysfunction than the use of saline. (Funded by the Vanderbilt Institute for Clinical and Translational Research and others; SMART-MED and SMART-SURG numbers, NCT02444988 and NCT02547779 .).

Concepts: Epidemiology, Medical statistics, Intravenous fluids, Intravenous therapy, Lactic acid, Lactated Ringer's solution, Saline, Hartmann's Solution


The intranasal route for medication administration is increasingly popular in the emergency department and out-of-hospital setting because such administration is simple and fast, and can be used for patients without intravenous access and in situations in which obtaining an intravenous line is difficult or time intensive (eg, for patients who are seizing or combative). Several small studies (mostly pediatric) have shown midazolam to be effective for procedural sedation, anxiolysis, and seizures. Intranasal fentanyl demonstrates both safety and efficacy for the management of acute pain. The intranasal route appears to be an effective alternative for naloxone in opioid overdose. The literature is less clear on roles for intranasal ketamine and dexmedetomidine.

Concepts: Medicine, Intravenous therapy, Opioid, Morphine, Heroin, Naloxone, Midazolam, Ketamine


“Approximately 2 months ago, I had a patient where I accidently administered a wrong dose of fentanyl during a procedure. The patient developed severe hypotension, and the procedure had to be temporarily halted until we could get her blood pressure back up. My attending was close by. He responded quickly. Ultimately, no harm was done. "The reason I believe this happened is that during a procedure I’m sometimes required to administer fentanyl and must dilute it during the procedure. There are two dilutions, either to directly administer by syringe, or for use as an intravenous drip. We do this dilution . . .

Concepts: Patient, Intravenous therapy, Orthostatic hypotension, Hypotension, Hypodermic needle, Dilution, 2004 singles


The millions of peripheral intravenous catheters used each year are recommended for 72-96 h replacement in adults. This routine replacement increases health-care costs and staff workload and requires patients to undergo repeated invasive procedures. The effectiveness of the practice is not well established. Our hypothesis was that clinically indicated catheter replacement is of equal benefit to routine replacement.

Concepts: Intravenous therapy, Catheter, Peripheral venous catheter, The Practice


Aim: The therapeutic potential of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a green tea polyphenol with anticancer properties, is limited by its inability to specifically reach tumors following intravenous administration. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a tumor-targeted vesicular formulation of EGCG would suppress the growth of A431 epidermoid carcinoma and B16-F10 melanoma in vitro and in vivo. Materials & methods: Transferrin-bearing vesicles encapsulating EGCG were administered intravenously to mice bearing subcutaneous A431 and B16-F10 tumors. Results: The intravenous administration of EGCG encapsulated in transferrin-bearing vesicles resulted in tumor suppression in 40% of A431 and B16-F10 tumors. Animal survival was improved by more than 20 days compared with controls. Conclusion: Encapsulation of EGCG in transferrin-bearing vesicles is a promising therapeutic strategy. Original submitted 28 November 2011; Revised submitted 11 May 2012; Published online 14 August 2012.

Concepts: Cancer, Oncology, Intravenous therapy, Catechin, Green tea, Polyphenol, Epigallocatechin gallate, Theaflavin


OBJECTIVE: Neuropathic pain is an area of unmet clinical need. The objective of this study was to define the pharmacokinetics, oral bioavailability, and efficacy in rats of small molecule antagonists of the angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2 R) for the relief of neuropathic pain. DESIGN AND METHODS.: Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats received single intravenous (1-10 mg/kg) or oral (5-10 mg/kg) bolus doses of EMA200, EMA300, EMA400 or EMA401 (S-enantiomer of EMA400). Blood samples were collected immediately pre-dose and at specified times over a 12- to 24-hour post-dosing period. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used to measure plasma drug concentrations. Efficacy was assessed in adult male SD rats with a unilateral chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve. RESULTS.: After intravenous administration in rats, mean (±standard error of the mean) plasma clearance for EMA200, EMA300, EMA400, and EMA401 was 9.3, 6.1, 0.7, and 1.1 L/hour/kg, respectively. After oral dosing, the dose-normalized systemic exposures of EMA400 and EMA401 were 20- to 30-fold and 50- to 60-fold higher than that for EMA300 and EMA200, respectively. The oral bioavailability of EMA400 and EMA401 was similar at ∼30%, whereas it was only 5.9% and 7.1% for EMA200 and EMA300, respectively. In CCI rats, single intraperitoneal bolus doses of EMA200, EMA300, and EMA400 evoked dose-dependent pain relief. The pain relief potency rank order in CCI rats was EMA400 > EMA300 > EMA200 in agreement with the dose-normalized systemic exposure rank order in SD rats. CONCLUSION.: The small molecule AT2 R antagonist, EMA401, is in clinical development as a novel analgesic for the relief of neuropathic pain.

Concepts: Protein, Pharmacology, Mass spectrometry, Intravenous therapy, Pain, Angiotensin, Pharmacokinetics, Angiotensin II receptor type 2


Our group and others internationally have previously reported data on the use of low-dose flumazenil administered intravenously for the management of benzodiazepine withdrawal. This paper describes the first reported use of subcutaneous flumazenil infusion in the management of acute benzodiazepine withdrawal. Self-reported withdrawal symptoms and psychological state and anxiety sequelae were collected at baseline and then at intervals to 5 days following initiation of subcutaneous flumazenil infusion. Data indicate that patient subjective benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms were well managed, with significant reduction in psychological distress seen over the duration of treatment. Perceived difficulty in performing everyday functions was positively correlated with withdrawal severity and improved over treatment. Patients reported high treatment comfort, willingness to undertake a future subsequent treatment using this technique, and willingness to recommend this treatment to a friend. This small proof-of-concept study indicates that subcutaneous flumazenil infusion has excellent tolerability, efficacy and improvement on measures of psychological distress. Given this technique is less invasive and requires fewer staff resources compared with intravenous administration, it may prove a significant asset in the management of benzodiazepine withdrawal.

Concepts: Intravenous therapy, Psychosis, Physical dependence, Withdrawal, Benzodiazepine, Delirium tremens, Alcohol withdrawal syndrome, Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome


For the purpose of brain delivery upon intravenous injection, formulations of camptothecin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN), prepared by hot high pressure homogenisation, were designed. Incorporation of camptothecin in the hydrophobic and acidic environment of SLN matrix was chosen to stabilise the lactone ring, which is essential for its antitumour activity, and for avoiding premature loss of drug on the way to target camptothecin to the brain. A multivariate approach was used to assess the influence of the qualitative and quantitative composition on the physicochemical properties of camptothecin-loaded SLN in comparison to plain SLN. Mean particle sizes of ≤200nm, homogenous size distributions and high encapsulation efficiencies (>90%) were achieved for the most suitable formulations. In vitro release studies in plasma, showed a prolonged release profile of camptothecin from SLN, confirming the physical stability of the particles under physiological pH. A higher affinity of the SLN to the porcine brain capillary endothelial cells (BCEC) was shown in comparison to macrophages. MTT studies in BCEC revealed a moderate decrease in the cell viability of camptothecin, when incorporated in SLN compared to free camptothecin in solution. In vivo studies in rats showed that fluorescently labelled SLN were detected in the brain after i.v. administration. This study indicates that the camptothecin-loaded SLN are a promising drug brain delivery system worth to explore further for brain tumour therapy.

Concepts: Blood vessel, Brain tumor, In vivo, Intravenous therapy, PH, In vitro, Qualitative research, Pharmaceutical formulation