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Concept: Intravenous therapy


Intravenous fluid administration is an essential component of sepsis management, but a positive fluid balance has been associated with worse prognosis. We analyzed whether a positive fluid balance and its persistence over time was an independent prognostic factor in septic patients.

Concepts: Medical terms, Intravenous therapy, Prognosis


The intranasal route for medication administration is increasingly popular in the emergency department and out-of-hospital setting because such administration is simple and fast, and can be used for patients without intravenous access and in situations in which obtaining an intravenous line is difficult or time intensive (eg, for patients who are seizing or combative). Several small studies (mostly pediatric) have shown midazolam to be effective for procedural sedation, anxiolysis, and seizures. Intranasal fentanyl demonstrates both safety and efficacy for the management of acute pain. The intranasal route appears to be an effective alternative for naloxone in opioid overdose. The literature is less clear on roles for intranasal ketamine and dexmedetomidine.

Concepts: Medicine, Intravenous therapy, Opioid, Morphine, Heroin, Naloxone, Midazolam, Ketamine


“Approximately 2 months ago, I had a patient where I accidently administered a wrong dose of fentanyl during a procedure. The patient developed severe hypotension, and the procedure had to be temporarily halted until we could get her blood pressure back up. My attending was close by. He responded quickly. Ultimately, no harm was done. "The reason I believe this happened is that during a procedure I’m sometimes required to administer fentanyl and must dilute it during the procedure. There are two dilutions, either to directly administer by syringe, or for use as an intravenous drip. We do this dilution . . .

Concepts: Patient, Intravenous therapy, Orthostatic hypotension, Hypotension, Hypodermic needle, Dilution, 2004 singles


The millions of peripheral intravenous catheters used each year are recommended for 72-96 h replacement in adults. This routine replacement increases health-care costs and staff workload and requires patients to undergo repeated invasive procedures. The effectiveness of the practice is not well established. Our hypothesis was that clinically indicated catheter replacement is of equal benefit to routine replacement.

Concepts: Intravenous therapy, Catheter, Peripheral venous catheter, The Practice


Aim: The therapeutic potential of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a green tea polyphenol with anticancer properties, is limited by its inability to specifically reach tumors following intravenous administration. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a tumor-targeted vesicular formulation of EGCG would suppress the growth of A431 epidermoid carcinoma and B16-F10 melanoma in vitro and in vivo. Materials & methods: Transferrin-bearing vesicles encapsulating EGCG were administered intravenously to mice bearing subcutaneous A431 and B16-F10 tumors. Results: The intravenous administration of EGCG encapsulated in transferrin-bearing vesicles resulted in tumor suppression in 40% of A431 and B16-F10 tumors. Animal survival was improved by more than 20 days compared with controls. Conclusion: Encapsulation of EGCG in transferrin-bearing vesicles is a promising therapeutic strategy. Original submitted 28 November 2011; Revised submitted 11 May 2012; Published online 14 August 2012.

Concepts: Cancer, Oncology, Intravenous therapy, Catechin, Green tea, Polyphenol, Epigallocatechin gallate, Theaflavin


OBJECTIVE: Neuropathic pain is an area of unmet clinical need. The objective of this study was to define the pharmacokinetics, oral bioavailability, and efficacy in rats of small molecule antagonists of the angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2 R) for the relief of neuropathic pain. DESIGN AND METHODS.: Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats received single intravenous (1-10 mg/kg) or oral (5-10 mg/kg) bolus doses of EMA200, EMA300, EMA400 or EMA401 (S-enantiomer of EMA400). Blood samples were collected immediately pre-dose and at specified times over a 12- to 24-hour post-dosing period. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used to measure plasma drug concentrations. Efficacy was assessed in adult male SD rats with a unilateral chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve. RESULTS.: After intravenous administration in rats, mean (±standard error of the mean) plasma clearance for EMA200, EMA300, EMA400, and EMA401 was 9.3, 6.1, 0.7, and 1.1 L/hour/kg, respectively. After oral dosing, the dose-normalized systemic exposures of EMA400 and EMA401 were 20- to 30-fold and 50- to 60-fold higher than that for EMA300 and EMA200, respectively. The oral bioavailability of EMA400 and EMA401 was similar at ∼30%, whereas it was only 5.9% and 7.1% for EMA200 and EMA300, respectively. In CCI rats, single intraperitoneal bolus doses of EMA200, EMA300, and EMA400 evoked dose-dependent pain relief. The pain relief potency rank order in CCI rats was EMA400 > EMA300 > EMA200 in agreement with the dose-normalized systemic exposure rank order in SD rats. CONCLUSION.: The small molecule AT2 R antagonist, EMA401, is in clinical development as a novel analgesic for the relief of neuropathic pain.

Concepts: Protein, Pharmacology, Mass spectrometry, Intravenous therapy, Pain, Angiotensin, Pharmacokinetics, Angiotensin II receptor type 2


Our group and others internationally have previously reported data on the use of low-dose flumazenil administered intravenously for the management of benzodiazepine withdrawal. This paper describes the first reported use of subcutaneous flumazenil infusion in the management of acute benzodiazepine withdrawal. Self-reported withdrawal symptoms and psychological state and anxiety sequelae were collected at baseline and then at intervals to 5 days following initiation of subcutaneous flumazenil infusion. Data indicate that patient subjective benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms were well managed, with significant reduction in psychological distress seen over the duration of treatment. Perceived difficulty in performing everyday functions was positively correlated with withdrawal severity and improved over treatment. Patients reported high treatment comfort, willingness to undertake a future subsequent treatment using this technique, and willingness to recommend this treatment to a friend. This small proof-of-concept study indicates that subcutaneous flumazenil infusion has excellent tolerability, efficacy and improvement on measures of psychological distress. Given this technique is less invasive and requires fewer staff resources compared with intravenous administration, it may prove a significant asset in the management of benzodiazepine withdrawal.

Concepts: Intravenous therapy, Psychosis, Physical dependence, Withdrawal, Benzodiazepine, Delirium tremens, Alcohol withdrawal syndrome, Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome


For the purpose of brain delivery upon intravenous injection, formulations of camptothecin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN), prepared by hot high pressure homogenisation, were designed. Incorporation of camptothecin in the hydrophobic and acidic environment of SLN matrix was chosen to stabilise the lactone ring, which is essential for its antitumour activity, and for avoiding premature loss of drug on the way to target camptothecin to the brain. A multivariate approach was used to assess the influence of the qualitative and quantitative composition on the physicochemical properties of camptothecin-loaded SLN in comparison to plain SLN. Mean particle sizes of ≤200nm, homogenous size distributions and high encapsulation efficiencies (>90%) were achieved for the most suitable formulations. In vitro release studies in plasma, showed a prolonged release profile of camptothecin from SLN, confirming the physical stability of the particles under physiological pH. A higher affinity of the SLN to the porcine brain capillary endothelial cells (BCEC) was shown in comparison to macrophages. MTT studies in BCEC revealed a moderate decrease in the cell viability of camptothecin, when incorporated in SLN compared to free camptothecin in solution. In vivo studies in rats showed that fluorescently labelled SLN were detected in the brain after i.v. administration. This study indicates that the camptothecin-loaded SLN are a promising drug brain delivery system worth to explore further for brain tumour therapy.

Concepts: Blood vessel, Brain tumor, In vivo, Intravenous therapy, PH, In vitro, Qualitative research, Pharmaceutical formulation


Case The objective of this case report is to report the development of tardive dyskinesia in an African-American adolescent male after short-term treatment with metoclopramide 10 mg orally three times daily secondary to delayed gastric emptying. The patient developed symptoms of tardive dyskinesia after 2 days of therapy with metoclopramide. Metoclopramide was discontinued and diphenhydramine 50 mg was initially administered intravenously followed with 25 mg orally every 4 hours as needed. While there are case reports of drug-induced tardive dyskinesia after intravenous administration of metoclopramide, this is to our knowledge the first report of tardive dyskinesia after short-term treatment with oral metoclopramide in an adolescent. Conclusion Awareness of the risk of development of this adverse effect even with short-term treatment with metoclopramide and in younger patients is important.

Concepts: Medical terms, Patient, Intravenous therapy, Report, Tardive dyskinesia, Bolus, Metoclopramide, Case report


Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may be useful for treating a variety of disease states associated with vascular instability including traumatic brain injury (TBI). A soluble factor, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP3), produced by MSCs is shown to recapitulate the beneficial effects of MSCs on endothelial function and to ameliorate the effects of a compromised blood-brain barrier (BBB) due to TBI. Intravenous administration of recombinant TIMP3 inhibited BBB permeability caused by TBI, whereas attenuation of TIMP3 expression in intravenously administered MSCs blocked the beneficial effects of the MSCs on BBB permeability and stability. MSCs increased circulating concentrations of soluble TIMP3, which blocked vascular endothelial growth factor-A-induced breakdown of endothelial cell adherens junctions in vitro and in vivo. These findings elucidate a potential molecular mechanism for the beneficial effects of MSCs on the BBB after TBI and demonstrate a role for TIMP3 in the regulation of BBB integrity.

Concepts: DNA, Stem cell, Mesenchymal stem cell, Traumatic brain injury, In vivo, Intravenous therapy, Endothelium, In vitro