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Concept: Intrauterine device

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Intrauterine contraceptive device is the most common method of reversible contraception in women. The intrauterine contraceptive device can perforate the uterus and can also migrate into pelvic or abdominal organs. Perforation of the urinary bladder by an intrauterine contraceptive device is not common. In West Africa, intravesical migration of an intrauterine contraceptive device has been rarely reported. In this report, we present a case of an intrauterine contraceptive device migration into the urinary bladder of a 33 year old African woman at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana.

Concepts: Kidney, Birth control, Africa, Uterus, Intrauterine device, Urinary bladder, Pelvis, Peritoneum

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Background The rate of teenage pregnancy in the United States is higher than in other developed nations. Teenage births result in substantial costs, including public assistance, health care costs, and income losses due to lower educational attainment and reduced earning potential. Methods The Contraceptive CHOICE Project was a large prospective cohort study designed to promote the use of long-acting, reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods to reduce unintended pregnancy in the St. Louis region. Participants were educated about reversible contraception, with an emphasis on the benefits of LARC methods, were provided with their choice of reversible contraception at no cost, and were followed for 2 to 3 years. We analyzed pregnancy, birth, and induced-abortion rates among teenage girls and women 15 to 19 years of age in this cohort and compared them with those observed nationally among U.S. teens in the same age group. Results Of the 1404 teenage girls and women enrolled in CHOICE, 72% chose an intrauterine device or implant (LARC methods); the remaining 28% chose another method. During the 2008-2013 period, the mean annual rates of pregnancy, birth, and abortion among CHOICE participants were 34.0, 19.4, and 9.7 per 1000 teens, respectively. In comparison, rates of pregnancy, birth, and abortion among sexually experienced U.S. teens in 2008 were 158.5, 94.0, and 41.5 per 1000, respectively. Conclusions Teenage girls and women who were provided contraception at no cost and educated about reversible contraception and the benefits of LARC methods had rates of pregnancy, birth, and abortion that were much lower than the national rates for sexually experienced teens. (Funded by the Susan Thompson Buffett Foundation and others.).

Concepts: Pregnancy, Childbirth, Birth control, Sexual intercourse, Intrauterine device, Abortion, Teenage pregnancy, Susan Buffett

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The Affordable Care Act mandates that private health insurance plans cover prescription contraceptives with no consumer cost sharing. The positive financial impact of this new provision on consumers who purchase contraceptives could be substantial, but it has not yet been estimated. Using a large administrative claims data set from a national insurer, we estimated out-of-pocket spending before and after the mandate. We found that mean and median per prescription out-of-pocket expenses have decreased for almost all reversible contraceptive methods on the market. The average percentages of out-of-pocket spending for oral contraceptive pill prescriptions and intrauterine device insertions by women using those methods both dropped by 20 percentage points after implementation of the ACA mandate. We estimated average out-of-pocket savings per contraceptive user to be $248 for the intrauterine device and $255 annually for the oral contraceptive pill. Our results suggest that the mandate has led to large reductions in total out-of-pocket spending on contraceptives and that these price changes are likely to be salient for women with private health insurance.

Concepts: Health insurance, Birth control, Mode, Intrauterine device, Combined oral contraceptive pill, Economics, Arithmetic mean, Percentage point

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: To assess the efficacy of tranexamic acid or mefenamic acid in the management of the initial “nuisance” bleeding or spotting in the period immediately after placement of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system.

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial, Intrauterine device, Efficacy, Control, Mefenamic acid

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To compare the efficacy of intrauterine balloon, intrauterine contraceptive device and hyaluronic acid gel in the prevention of the adhesion reformation after hysteroscopic adhesiolysis for Asherman’s syndrome.

Concepts: Birth control, Uterus, Intrauterine device, Abortion, Endometrium, Asherman's syndrome, Hysteroscopy, Hyalobarrier

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To identify and compare the incidence of uterine perforation and other medically adverse events associated with levonorgestrel-releasing IUDs (LNG-IUSs, releasing 20 mcg LNG daily) and copper IUDs under routine conditions of use in a study population representative of typical users.

Concepts: Intrauterine device

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To measure the rate of unintended pregnancies in women using levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine devices (LNG-IUSs, releasing 20 mcg LNG daily) and copper IUDs in a typical population of IUD users and to describe associated complications.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Birth control, Intrauterine device

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Whether use of various types of hormonal contraception (HC) affect risk of HIV acquisition is a critical question for women’s health. For this systematic review, we identified 22 studies published by January 15, 2014 which met inclusion criteria; we classified thirteen studies as having severe methodological limitations, and nine studies as “informative but with important limitations”. Overall, data do not support an association between use of oral contraceptives and increased risk of HIV acquisition. Uncertainty persists regarding whether an association exists between depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) use and risk of HIV acquisition. Most studies suggested no significantly increased HIV risk with norethisterone enanthate (NET-EN) use, but when assessed in the same study, point estimates for NET-EN tended to be larger than for DMPA, though 95% confidence intervals overlapped substantially. No data have suggested significantly increased risk of HIV acquisition with use of implants, though data were limited. No data are available on the relationship between use of contraceptive patches, rings, or hormonal intrauterine devices and risk of HIV acquisition. Women choosing progestin-only injectable contraceptives such as DMPA or NET-EN should be informed of the current uncertainty regarding whether use of these methods increases risk of HIV acquisition, and like all women at risk of HIV, should be empowered to access and use condoms and other HIV preventative measures. Programs, practitioners, and women urgently need guidance on how to maximize health with respect to avoiding both unintended pregnancy and HIV given inconclusive or limited data for certain HC methods.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Birth control, Emergency contraception, Hormonal contraception, Intrauterine device, Combined oral contraceptive pill, Condom, Combined injectable contraceptive

13

Teen* childbearing (one or more live births before age 20 years) can have negative health, social, and economic consequences for mothers and their children (1). Repeat teen births (two or more live births before age 20 years) can constrain the mother’s ability to take advantage of educational and workforce opportunities (2), and are more likely to be preterm or of low birthweight than first teen births (3). Despite the historic decline in the U.S. teen birth rate during 1991-2015, from 61.8 to 22.3 births per 1,000 females aged 15-19 years (4), many teens continue to have repeat births (3). The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Academy of Pediatrics both recommend that clinicians counsel women (including teens) during prenatal care about birth spacing and postpartum contraceptive use (5), including the safety and effectiveness of long-acting reversible methods that can be initiated immediately postpartum. To expand upon prior research assessing patterns and trends in repeat childbearing and postpartum contraceptive use among teens with a recent live birth (i.e., 2-6 months after delivery) (3), CDC analyzed data from the National Vital Statistics System natality files (2004 and 2015) and the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS; 2004-2013). The number and proportion of teen births that were repeat births decreased from 2004 (82,997; 20.1%) to 2015 (38,324; 16.7%); in 2015, the percentage of teen births that were repeat births varied by state from 10.6% to 21.4%. Among sexually active teens with a recent live birth, postpartum use of the most effective contraceptive methods (intrauterine devices and contraceptive implants) increased from 5.3% in 2004 to 25.3% in 2013; however, in 2013, approximately one in three reported using either a least effective method (15.7%) or no method (17.2%). Strategies that comprehensively address the social and health care needs of teen parents can facilitate access to and use of effective methods of contraception and help prevent repeat teen births.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Childbirth, Birth control, Sexual intercourse, Intrauterine device, Obstetrics, Abortion, Gestational age

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To compare rates of unintended pregnancy, method continuation, and reasons for removal among women using the 52 mg levonorgestrel (daily release 20 microg) (LNG-IUD) or the copper T 380A (TCu380A) intrauterine device.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Childbirth, Birth control, Uterus, Randomized controlled trial, Intrauterine device