SciCombinator

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Concept: Intraocular pressure

220

To measure changes in intraocular pressure (IOP) in association with yoga exercises with a head-down position.

Concepts: Intraocular pressure, Glaucoma, Trabecular meshwork

169

Improving adherence to manage elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) remains an unmet need. A topical bimatoprost ocular insert was compared with twice-daily timolol eye drops in patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) or ocular hypertension (OHT) treated for 6 months.

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial, Intraocular pressure, Glaucoma, Ophthalmology, Trabecular meshwork, Ocular hypertension, Dorzolamide

168

BACKGROUND: Raised intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only causal risk factor for glaucoma that can be therapeutically manipulated to change the course of the disease process. Though Goldman applanation tonometry (GAT) is the “gold standard” for IOP measurement, readings of IOP with GAT are affected by central corneal thickness (CCT). The aim of this study is to determine the impact of CCT on IOP among Ethiopian glaucoma patients. METHODS: It was a multicenter cross-sectional study and all glaucoma patients visiting their respective eye clinic during the study period were included. A total of 199 randomly selected glaucomatous eyes from 199 patients aged 18 years and above were employed. The CCT was measured by OcuScan® RxP Ophthalmic Ultrasound and IOP was measured with Goldmann applanation tonometer. Linear regression and bivariate correlation analysis were carried out and level of significance was taken at 5%. RESULTS: The mean IOP was 19.46(+/-7.05) mmHg and mean CCT was 508.07(+/-33.26) mum. The mean IOP for primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), ocular hypertension (OHT), normal tension glaucoma (NTG), pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PXG) and primary chronic angle closure glaucoma (PCAG) patients was 19.22 mmHg, 21.39 mmHg, 14.33 mmHg, 33.25 mmHg and 14.75 mmHg respectively. The mean CCT values were 502.24 mum (POAG), 524.32 mum (OHT), 500.75 mum (NTG), 579.00 mum (PXG) and 530.25 mum (PCAG). Age of the patient and glaucoma surgery had an influence on corneal thickness. A positive relationship was found between CCT and IOP (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The mean CCT of Ethiopian glaucoma patients is thin in comparison to other ethnic groups and patients with OHT have thicker corneas than POAG patients. Hence determination of CCT for each patient is necessary in the up-to-date glaucoma management.

Concepts: Intraocular pressure, Glaucoma, Ophthalmology, Tonometry, Trabecular meshwork, Ocular hypertension, Trabeculectomy

167

Tonometry, or measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP), is one of the most important examination procedures in ophthalmic clinics, and IOP is an important parameter in the diagnosis of glaucoma. Because there are numerous types of tonometer available, it is important to evaluate the differences in readings between different tonometers. Goldmann applanation tonometers (GATs) and noncontact air-puff tonometers (APTs) are largely available in ophthalmic clinics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of AP tonometer by comparing the measurements of IOP made using this device with those made using a GAT.

Concepts: Measurement, Intraocular pressure, Glaucoma, Ophthalmology, Tonometry, Topical anesthetic, Oxybuprocaine, Timeline of temperature and pressure measurement technology

163

Numerous studies have been completed on glaucoma pathogenesis. However, the potential and controversial interaction between ocular biomechanical properties and the glaucomatous diseases process has received much more attention recently. Previous studies have found that collagen tissues gain mutation change in glaucoma patients. This study was conducted to determine the role of collagen in the biomechanics of glaucoma in humans. Its changes may be the result of mechanical modifications brought on by intraocular pressure (IOP) fluctuations. More importantly, biomechanics and genetic evidence indicate that the mutation of collagen may play a role in the process of glaucoma. Alteration of collagen in the outflow pathway may alter mechanical tissue characteristics and a concomitant increase of aqueous humor outflow resistance and elevation of IOP. The variations of collagen, leading to inter-individual differences in scleral and lamina cribrosa properties, result in different susceptibility of individuals to elevated IOP. Therefore, this study hypothesized that collagen mutations may be an original cause of glaucoma.

Concepts: Bone, Genetics, Mutation, Cartilage, Cornea, Intraocular pressure, Biomechanics, Aqueous humour

144

To evaluate the safety and intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering effect of a biodegradable bimatoprost sustained-release implant (Bimatoprost SR).

Concepts: Clinical trial, Effectiveness, ClinicalTrials.gov, Pharmaceutical industry, Clinical research, Intraocular pressure, Glaucoma, Dental implant

142

We assess the efficacy and safety of canaloplasty and trabeculectomy for treatment of glaucoma. We searched the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, PubMed, Web of Science, and WanFang databases for potentially eligible studies. Pooled risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using random- or fixed-effect models if appropriate. Eight studies were included for meta-analysis. There was no difference in intraocular pressure at 6 months (WMD = 0.97, 95%CI: -0.48-2.41). Intraocular pressure in canaloplasty group 12 months after operation was higher than in trabeculectomy group (WMD = 1.90, 95%CI: 0.12-3.69), P < 0.05). The canaloplasty group showed higher success rate than trabeculectomy group (RR = 0.86, 95%CI: 0.77-0.97). The canaloplasty group was more likely to have hyphema (RR = 2.96, 95%CI: 1.51-5.83), P < 0.05) than trabeculectomy group (RR = 0.24, 95, CI(0.06-0.89), P < 0.05]. The incidence of and hypotony and postoperative choroid abnormalities in canaloplasty group was significantly lower than that in trabeculectomy group (RR = 0.30, 95%CI: 0.11-0.83; RR = 0.24, 95%CI: 0.09-0.66), P < 0.05). Both trabeculectomy and canaloplasty can significantly reduce the intraocular pressure in glaucoma patients at 12 months after operation, trabeculectomy leads a more marked IOP decrease than canaloplasty at the cost of a higher complication rate and more demanding for postoperative care.

Concepts: Medical statistics, Intraocular pressure, Glaucoma, Ophthalmology, Confidence interval, Trabecular meshwork, Trabeculectomy

133

To assess the efficacy and safety of latanoprostene bunod (LBN) compared with latanoprost 0.005%, and to determine the optimum drug concentration(s) of LBN in reducing intraocular pressure (IOP) in subjects with open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension.

Concepts: Intraocular pressure, Glaucoma, Ophthalmology, Trabecular meshwork, Ocular hypertension, Latanoprost

129

To compare the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering effect of latanoprostene bunod (LBN) 0.024% with timolol maleate 0.5% in subjects with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) or ocular hypertension (OHT).

Concepts: Comparison, Intraocular pressure, Glaucoma, Ophthalmology, Ocular hypertension, Beta blocker, Dorzolamide, Timolol

128

Timolol (generic name) is a frequently used medication for the control of glaucoma. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is a commonly used preservative in ophthalmic solutions with a broad range of antimicrobial activity; however, this nonspecificity can result in toxicity. Adverse effects attributed to BAK, including conjunctival inflammation and fibrosis, tear film instability, corneal cytotoxicity, anterior chamber inflammation, trabecular meshwork cell apoptosis, cataract development, macular edema, and even systemic effects, have been well documented. These effects can lead to ocular discomfort, poor intraocular pressure control, glaucoma surgery failure, and decreased patient compliance. BAK use in topical medications has decreased recently as newer and less toxic preservatives have become available. Yet these preservatives still exert some toxic effects, especially in patients with chronic eye disease who use multiple drops over extended periods of time. Thus, attempts to reduce overall preservative loads for patients are important, whether it be decreasing the amount of preservative, decreasing the total number of drops patients use, or eliminating preservatives entirely. A preservative-free formulation of timolol, TIMOPTICĀ® in OCUDOSEĀ®, is available in unit-dose vials. Preservative-free unit-dose vials minimize toxic adverse effects and are a good option for patients with ocular surface disease, on long-term multidrop therapy, or who simply do not tolerate the effects of preservatives due to discomfort.

Concepts: Immune system, Toxicology, Eye, Intraocular pressure, Glaucoma, Ophthalmology, Toxicity, Trabecular meshwork