SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Intestine

214

OBJECTIVE: To characterise the influence of diet on abdominal symptoms, anal gas evacuation, intestinal gas distribution and colonic microbiota in patients complaining of flatulence. DESIGN: Patients complaining of flatulence (n=30) and healthy subjects (n=20) were instructed to follow their usual diet for 3 days (basal phase) and to consume a high-flatulogenic diet for another 3 days (challenge phase). RESULTS: During basal phase, patients recorded more abdominal symptoms than healthy subjects in daily questionnaires (5.8±0.3 vs 0.4±0.2 mean discomfort/pain score, respectively; p=<0.0001) and more gas evacuations by an event marker (21.9±2.8 vs 7.4±1.0 daytime evacuations, respectively; p=0.0001), without differences in the volume of gas evacuated after a standard meal (262±22 and 265±25 mL, respectively). On flatulogenic diet, both groups recorded more abdominal symptoms (7.9±0.3 and 2.8±0.4 discomfort/pain, respectively), number of gas evacuations (44.4±5.3 and 21.7±2.9 daytime evacuations, respectively) and had more gas production (656±52 and 673±78 mL, respectively; p<0.05 vs basal diet for all). When challenged with flatulogenic diet, patients' microbiota developed instability in composition, exhibiting variations in the main phyla and reduction of microbial diversity, whereas healthy subjects' microbiota were stable. Taxa from Bacteroides fragilis or Bilophila wadsworthia correlated with number of gas evacuations or volume of gas evacuated, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Patients complaining of flatulence have a poor tolerance of intestinal gas, which is associated with instability of the microbial ecosystem.

Concepts: Bacteria, Gut flora, Fundamental physics concepts, Intestine, Flatulence, Plasma, Emergency evacuation, Bacteroides fragilis

169

To explore whether patients with a defective ileocecal valve (ICV)/cecal distension reflex have small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.

Concepts: Bacteria, Digestive system, Large intestine, Intestine, Gastroenterology, Small intestine, Small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome, Ileocecal valve

168

Extracellular ATP is released from live cells in controlled conditions, as well as dying cells in inflammatory conditions, and, thereby, regulates T cell responses, including Th17 cell induction. The level of extracellular ATP is closely regulated by ATP hydrolyzing enzymes, such as ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (ENTPDases). ENTPDase1/CD39, which is expressed in immune cells, was shown to regulate immune responses by downregulating the ATP level. In this study, we analyzed the immunomodulatory function of ENTPDase7, which is preferentially expressed in epithelial cells in the small intestine. The targeted deletion of Entpd7 encoding ENTPDase7 in mice resulted in increased ATP levels in the small intestinal lumen. The number of Th17 cells was selectively increased in the small intestinal lamina propria in Entpd7(-/-) mice. Th17 cells were decreased by oral administration of antibiotics or the ATP antagonist in Entpd7(-/-) mice, indicating that commensal microbiota-dependent ATP release mediates the enhanced Th17 cell development in the small intestinal lamina propria of Entpd7(-/-) mice. In accordance with the increased number of small intestinal Th17 cells, Entpd7(-/-) mice were resistant to oral infection with Citrobacter rodentium. Entpd7(-/-) mice suffered from severe experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, which was associated with increased numbers of CD4(+) T cells producing both IL-17 and IFN-γ. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that ENTPDase7 controls the luminal ATP level and, thereby, regulates Th17 cell development in the small intestine.

Concepts: Immune system, Bacteria, Adenosine triphosphate, T cell, Large intestine, Intestine, Small intestine, Lacteal

162

Angiosarcoma is a rare disease with a poor prognosis; significantly, patients with intestinal angiosarcomas who survive over 1 year after diagnosis are extraordinarily rare. This article describes the case of a 33-year-old gentleman who presented with abdominal pain of 4 months duration, which had increased in severity 2 weeks prior to presentation. After a complicated diagnostic and therapeutic process, the diagnosis of primary angiosarcoma of the small intestine with metastasis to the liver was made by pathological and immunohistochemical examinations. We reviewed previous cases of angiosarcoma described in the English literature to determine their risk factors, diagnosis and treatment, and we found that angiosarcoma is extremely rare, especially in the small intestine. To the best of our knowledge, this may be the youngest case of primary angiosarcoma of the small intestine with metastasis to the liver reported in the English literature.

Concepts: Cancer, Medical terms, Liver, Medical diagnosis, Large intestine, Intestine, Small intestine, English studies

48

Alterations in the composition of the intestinal microbiota have been correlated with aging and measures of frailty in the elderly. However, the relationships between microbial dynamics, age-related changes in intestinal physiology, and organismal health remain poorly understood. Here, we show that dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota, characterized by an expansion of the Gammaproteobacteria, is tightly linked to age-onset intestinal barrier dysfunction in Drosophila. Indeed, alterations in the microbiota precede and predict the onset of intestinal barrier dysfunction in aged flies. Changes in microbial composition occurring prior to intestinal barrier dysfunction contribute to changes in excretory function and immune gene activation in the aging intestine. In addition, we show that a distinct shift in microbiota composition follows intestinal barrier dysfunction, leading to systemic immune activation and organismal death. Our results indicate that alterations in microbiota dynamics could contribute to and also predict varying rates of health decline during aging in mammals.

Concepts: Bacteria, Death, Senescence, Intestine, Gerontology, Old age, Ageing, Retirement

40

Recent studies suggest small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is common among developing world children. SIBO’s pathogenesis and effect in the developing world are unclear. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of SIBO in Bangladeshi children and its association with malnutrition. Secondary objectives included determination of SIBO’s association with sanitation, diarrheal disease, and environmental enteropathy. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 90 Bangladeshi 2-year-olds monitored since birth from an impoverished neighborhood. SIBO was diagnosed via glucose hydrogen breath testing, with a cutoff of a 12-ppm increase over baseline used for SIBO positivity. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to investigate SIBO predictors. Differences in concomitant inflammation and permeability between SIBO-positive and -negative children were compared with multiple comparison adjustment. A total of 16.7% (15/90) of the children had SIBO. The strongest predictors of SIBO were decreased length-for-age Z score since birth (odds ratio [OR], 0.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.03 to 0.60) and an open sewer outside the home (OR, 4.78; 95% CI, 1.06 to 21.62). Recent or frequent diarrheal disease did not predict SIBO. The markers of intestinal inflammation fecal Reg 1β (116.8 versus 65.6 µg/ml; P = 0.02) and fecal calprotectin (1,834.6 versus 766.7 µg/g; P = 0.004) were elevated in SIBO-positive children. Measures of intestinal permeability and systemic inflammation did not differ between the groups. These findings suggest linear growth faltering and poor sanitation are associated with SIBO independently of recent or frequent diarrheal disease. SIBO is associated with intestinal inflammation but not increased permeability or systemic inflammation.

Concepts: Immune system, Bacteria, Poverty, Ulcerative colitis, Large intestine, Intestine, Gastroenterology, Small intestine

30

The microbial communities living in the human intestine can have profound impact on our well-being and health. However, we have limited understanding of the mechanisms that control this complex ecosystem. Here, based on a deep phylogenetic analysis of the intestinal microbiota in a thousand western adults, we identify groups of bacteria that exhibit robust bistable abundance distributions. These bacteria are either abundant or nearly absent in most individuals, and exhibit decreased temporal stability at the intermediate abundance range. The abundances of these bimodally distributed bacteria vary independently, and their abundance distributions are not affected by short-term dietary interventions. However, their contrasting alternative states are associated with host factors such as ageing and overweight. We propose that the bistable groups reflect tipping elements of the intestinal microbiota, whose critical transitions may have profound health implications and diagnostic potential.

Concepts: Archaea, Bacteria, Nutrition, Microbiology, Intestine, Abundance, Abundance of the chemical elements, Beth Henley

30

OBJECTIVE: Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) remains one of the primary causes of morbidity and mortality in neonates and alternative strategies are needed. Stem cells have become a therapeutic option for other intestinal diseases, which share some features with NEC. We tested the hypothesis that amniotic fluid stem (AFS) cells exerted a beneficial effect in a neonatal rat model of NEC. DESIGN: Rats intraperitoneally injected with AFS cells and their controls (bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, myoblast) were analysed for survival, behaviour, bowel imaging (MRI scan), histology, bowel absorption and motility, immunofluorescence for AFS cell detection, degree of gut inflammation (myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde), and enterocyte apoptosis and proliferation. RESULTS: AFS cells integrated in the bowel wall and improved rat survival and clinical conditions, decreased NEC incidence and macroscopic gut damage, improved intestinal function, decreased bowel inflammation, increased enterocyte proliferation and reduced apoptosis. The beneficial effect was achieved via modulation of stromal cells expressing cyclooxygenase 2 in the lamina propria, as shown by survival studies using selective and non-selective cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors. Interestingly, AFS cells differentially expressed genes of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, which regulate intestinal epithelial stem cell function and cell migration and growth factors known to maintain gut epithelial integrity and reduce mucosal injury. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated here for the first time that AFS cells injected in an established model of NEC improve survival, clinical status, gut structure and function. Understanding the mechanism of this effect may help us to develop new cellular or pharmacological therapies for infants with NEC.

Concepts: Bacteria, Enzyme, Stem cell, Mesenchymal stem cell, Bone marrow, Ulcerative colitis, Intestine, Small intestine

30

The mammalian intestine is home to a dense community of bacteria and its associated bacteriophage (phage). Virtually nothing is known about how phages impact the establishment and maintenance of resident bacterial communities in the intestine. Here, we examine the phages harbored by Enterococcus faecalis, a commensal of the human intestine. We show that E. faecalis strain V583 produces a composite phage (V1/7) derived from two distinct chromosomally encoded prophage elements. One prophage, prophage 1 (V1), encodes the structural genes necessary for phage particle production. Another prophage, prophage 7 (V7), is required for phage infection of susceptible host bacteria. Production of V1/7 is controlled, in part, by nutrient availability, because V1/7 particle numbers are elevated by free amino acids in culture and during growth in the mouse intestine. V1/7 confers an advantage to E. faecalis V583 during competition with other E. faecalis strains in vitro and in vivo. Thus, we propose that E. faecalis V583 uses phage particles to establish and maintain dominance of its intestinal niche in the presence of closely related competing strains. Our findings indicate that bacteriophages can impact the dynamics of bacterial colonization in the mammalian intestinal ecosystem.

Concepts: DNA, Bacteria, Amino acid, Microbiology, Virus, Genome, Bacteriophage, Intestine

29

The intestinal mucosal barrier controlling the resident microbiome is dependent on a protective mucus layer generated by goblet cells, impairment of which is a hallmark of the inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis. Here, we show that IL-18 is critical in driving the pathologic breakdown of barrier integrity in a model of colitis. Deletion of Il18 or its receptor Il18r1 in intestinal epithelial cells (Δ/EC) conferred protection from colitis and mucosal damage in mice. In contrast, deletion of the IL-18 negative regulator Il18bp resulted in severe colitis associated with loss of mature goblet cells. Colitis and goblet cell loss were rescued in Il18bp(-/-);Il18r(Δ/EC) mice, demonstrating that colitis severity is controlled at the level of IL-18 signaling in intestinal epithelial cells. IL-18 inhibited goblet cell maturation by regulating the transcriptional program instructing goblet cell development. These results inform on the mechanism of goblet cell dysfunction that underlies the pathology of ulcerative colitis.

Concepts: DNA, Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, Intestine, Gastroenterology, Inflammatory bowel disease, Mucus, Goblet cell