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Concept: Interventional cardiology


Anomalies of coronary number and course represent an opinion-dividing topic in cardiopathology, particularly for their relationship with sudden cardiac death. To the best of our knowledge, we herein report the first fatal case of a young female whose coronary anatomy was characterised by the absence of any septal perforator branch in the proximal segment of the LAD. This case could be useful for pathologists, coronary angiographers, and interventional cardiologists in detecting this infrequent anomaly, thus providing a more accurate estimation of its incidence. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:

Concepts: Atherosclerosis, Cardiology, Heart, Cardiac arrest, Artery, Coronary circulation, Interventional cardiology, Sudden cardiac death


Previous research has found that patients with acute cardiovascular conditions treated in teaching hospitals have lower 30-day mortality during dates of national cardiology meetings.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Hospital, Cardiology, Cardiovascular disease, Coronary catheterization, Interventional cardiology, Troponin


Quality collaboratives are widely endorsed as a potentially effective method for translating and spreading best practices for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) care. Nevertheless, hospital success in improving performance through participation in collaboratives varies markedly. We sought to understand what distinguished hospitals that succeeded in shifting culture and reducing 30-day risk-standardised mortality rate (RSMR) after AMI through their participation in the Leadership Saves Lives (LSL) collaborative.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Cardiology, Infarction, Interventional cardiology, Troponin, Necrosis, Emergency department


To investigate the percutaneous endovascular management of visceral aneurysms (VA) and visceral pseudoaneurysms (VPA) treated in three European interventional radiology departments.

Concepts: Radiology, Interventional cardiology, Interventional radiology


BACKGROUND: The best way to manage restenosis in patients who have previously received a drug-eluting stent is unknown. We investigated the efficacy of paclitaxel-eluting balloons (PEB), paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES), and balloon angioplasty in these patients. METHODS: In this randomised, open-label trial, we enrolled patients older than 18 years with restenosis of at least 50% after implantation of any limus-eluting stent at three centres in Germany between Aug 3, 2009, and Oct 27, 2011. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1; stratified according to centre) to receive PEB, PES, or balloon angioplasty alone by means of sealed, opaque envelopes containing a computer-generated sequence. Patients and investigators were not masked to treatment allocation, but events and angiograms were assessed by individuals who were masked. The primary endpoint was diameter stenosis at follow-up angiography at 6-8 months. Primary analysis was done by intention to treat. This trial is registered with, number NCT00987324. FINDINGS: We enrolled 402 patients, of whom 137 (34%) were assigned to PEB, 131 (33%) to PES, and 134 (33%) to balloon angioplasty. Follow-up angiography at 6-8 months was available for 338 (84%) patients. PEB was non-inferior to PES in terms of diameter stenosis (38·0% [SD 21·5] vs 37·4% [21·8]; difference 0·6%, one-sided 95% CI 4·9%; p(non-inferiority)=0·007; non-inferiority margin of 7%). Findings were consistent in per-protocol analysis (p(non-inferiority)=0·011). PEB and PES were superior to balloon angioplasty alone (54·1% [25·0]; p(superiority)<0·0001 for both comparisons). Frequency of death, myocardial infarction, or target lesion thrombosis did not differ between groups. INTERPRETATION: By obviating the need for additional stent implantation, PEB could be a useful treatment for patients with restenosis after implantation of a drug-eluting stent. FUNDING: Deutsches Herzzentrum.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Cardiology, Percutaneous coronary intervention, Stent, Radiology, Interventional cardiology, Restenosis


Despite significant advancements in the field of cardiovascular imaging, transoesophageal echocardiography remains the key imaging modality in the management of valvular pathologies. This paper provides echocardiographers with an overview of the modern role of TOE in the diagnosis and management of valvular disease. We describe how the introduction of 3D techniques has changed detection and grading of valvular pathologies and concentrate on its role as a monitoring tool in interventional cardiology. In addition, we focus on the echocardiographic and Doppler techniques used in the assessment of prosthetic valves, and provide guidance for evaluation of prosthetic valves. Finally, we summarise quantitative methods used for the assessment of valvular stenosis and regurgitation and highlight the key areas where echocardiography remains superior over other novel imaging modalities.

Concepts: Cancer, Cardiology, Doppler echocardiography, Echocardiography, Sociology, Interventional cardiology, Contrast-enhanced ultrasound, Debut albums


This study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of ceiling suspended screens, lead glasses and lead caps in reducing the dose in the brain of interventional cardiologists.

Concepts: Medicine, Ionizing radiation, Interventional cardiology


We report a case of successful computed tomography-guided percutaneous revascularization of a chronically occluded right coronary artery using a wearable, hands-free computer with a head-mounted display worn by interventional cardiologists in the catheterization laboratory. The projection of 3-dimensional computed tomographic reconstructions onto the screen of virtual reality glass allowed the operators to clearly visualize the distal coronary vessel, and verify the direction of the guide wire advancement relative to the course of the occluded vessel segment. This case provides proof of concept that wearable computers can improve operator comfort and procedure efficiency in interventional cardiology.

Concepts: Atherosclerosis, Angina pectoris, Cardiology, Coronary catheterization, Coronary circulation, Interventional cardiology, Computer, Wearable computer


In the early days of coronary angiography, the precise quantification of luminal narrowing was challenging. The introduction of balloon angioplasty (percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty [PTCA]) by Andreas Grüntzig in 1977 was perhaps the greatest incentive to the development of quantitative coronary angiography (QCA). QCA has played a crucial role in evaluating interventional techniques and assessing the results of new technologies. With the advent of drug-eluting stents (DES), QCA metrics such as late lumen loss and diameter stenosis (restenosis) proved to be instrumental in assessing new technologies. Refinements in QCA with the advent of dedicated bifurcation analysis and three-dimensional (3D) QCA have broadened the application of QCA. Beyond angiographic metrics, new developments in the field of QCA have introduced the functional component in the assessment of coronary lesions. Angiography-derived fractional flow reserve (FFR) may be a good tool for diagnosing ischaemia-producing lesions in patients with non-complex coronary artery disease. Furthermore, the incremental functional information can be used to expand the traditional late lumen loss (LLL) and restenosis concepts.

Concepts: Atherosclerosis, Angina pectoris, Coronary artery disease, Cardiology, Atheroma, Radiology, Interventional cardiology, Angioplasty


Airway management outside the operating room is associated with increased risks compared with airway management inside the operating room. Moreover, airway management-whether in the intensive care unit, emergency department, interventional radiology suite, or general wards-often requires mastery of not only the anatomically difficult airway but also the physiologically and situationally difficult airway. The 2015 Difficult Airway Society Guidelines encourage the airway team to “stop and think”. This article provides a practical review of how that evidence applies during emergency airway management outside of the operating room. To counter the challenges of airway management outside the operating room, we offer a mnemonic that combines both technical and non-technical insights summarized using the seven letters of the word PREPARE (P: pre-oxygenate/position; R: reset/resist; E: examine/explicit; P: plan A/B; A: adjust/attention; R: remain/review; E: exit/explore). We hope it can unite potentially disparate personnel with a structure that allows them to make acute decisions, coordinate action, and communicate unequivocally. This multidisciplinary publication also hopes to encourage common understanding and language between anesthesiologists and non-anesthesiologists about the perils of airway management outside the operating room and the importance of airway teamwork.

Concepts: Intensive care medicine, Radiology, Interventional cardiology, Interventional radiology, Airway management, Hope