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Concept: Interstitial nephritis

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Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the most commonly used drugs worldwide and have been linked to acute interstitial nephritis. Less is known about the association between PPI use and chronic kidney disease (CKD).

Concepts: Chronic kidney disease, Kidney, Interstitial nephritis, Kidney diseases, Nephritis

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The association between proton pump inhibitors (PPI) use and risk of acute interstitial nephritis has been described. However, whether exposure to PPI associates with incident CKD, CKD progression, or ESRD is not known. We used Department of Veterans Affairs national databases to build a primary cohort of new users of PPI (n=173,321) and new users of histamine H2-receptor antagonists (H2blockers;n=20,270) and followed these patients over 5 years to ascertain renal outcomes. In adjusted Cox survival models, the PPI group, compared with the H2blockers group, had an increased risk of incident eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)and of incident CKD (hazard ratio [HR], 1.22; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.18 to 1.26; and HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.23 to 1.34, respectively). Patients treated with PPI also had a significantly elevated risk of doubling of serum creatinine level (HR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.42 to 1.65), of eGFR decline >30% (HR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.28 to 1.37), and of ESRD (HR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.21 to 3.18). Furthermore, we detected a graded association between duration of PPI exposure and risk of renal outcomes among those exposed to PPI for 31-90, 91-180, 181-360, and 361-720 days compared with those exposed for ≤30 days. Examination of risk of renal outcomes in 1:1 propensity score-matched cohorts of patients taking H2blockers versus patients taking PPI and patients taking PPI versus controls yielded consistent results. Our results suggest that PPI exposure associates with increased risk of incident CKD, CKD progression, and ESRD.

Concepts: Kidney, Proportional hazards models, Renal physiology, Creatinine, Interstitial nephritis, Kidney diseases, Nephritis, H2 antagonist

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BackgroundFollowing advice from the Scottish Antimicrobial Prescribing Group, we switched our antibiotic prophylaxis for elective hip and knee replacement surgery from cefuroxime to flucloxacillin with single-dose gentamicin in order to reduce the incidence of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea (CDAD). A clinical impression that more patients subsequently developed acute kidney injury (AKI) led us to examine this possibility in more detail.MethodsWe examined the incidence of AKI in 198 consecutive patients undergoing elective hip or knee surgery. These patients were given the following prophylactic antibiotics: cefuroxime (n = 48); then high-dose (HD) flucloxacillin (5-8 g) with single-dose gentamicin (n = 52); then low-dose (LD) flucloxacillin (3-4 g) with single-dose gentamicin (n = 46) and finally cefuroxime again (n = 52).ResultsPatients receiving HD flucloxacillin required more vasopressors during surgery (P = 0.02); otherwise, there were no statistically significant differences in pre- and peri-operative characteristics between the four groups. The proportion of patients with any form of AKI by RIFLE criteria was first cefuroxime (8%), HD flucloxacillin with gentamicin (52%), LD flucloxacillin with gentamicin (22%) and second cefuroxime (14%; P < 0.0001). Odds ratios for AKI derived from a multivariate logistic regression model, adjusted also for sex and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, with the first cefuroxime group as a reference category were: HD flucloxacillin with gentamicin 14.53 (4.25-49.71); LD flucloxacillin with gentamicin 2.96 (0.81-10.81) and second cefuroxime 2.01 (0.52-7.73). Three patients required temporary haemodialysis. Biopsies in two of these showed acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis. All three patients belonged to the HD flucloxacillin with gentamicin group. None of the patients developed CDAD.ConclusionsWe have shown an association between the prophylactic antibiotic regimen and subsequent development of AKI following primary hip and knee arthroplasty that appeared to be due to the use of HD flucloxacillin with single-dose gentamicin. We found no evidence to suggest that this association was confounded by any of the co-variates we measured.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Kidney, Statistical significance, Acute kidney injury, Antibiotic, Knee replacement, Clostridium difficile, Interstitial nephritis

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Acute kidney injury (AKI) remains a predominant clinical expression of nephropathia epidemica (NE). Its pathogenesis is not yet fully understood. Here, we describe the tissue injury comprehensively and present new data aimed to characterize the injury and explain its pathophysiology. When compared to tubulointerstitial nephritis of a wide variety of other aetiologies, a high degree of proteinuria is a distinguished trait of NE, a finding that is also helpful in the clinical suspicion of the disease. Recently, novel biomarkers for the prediction of severe AKI, including neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), have been identified and ultrastructural tissue changes have been more accurately described. A role for soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator (suPAR) in the pathogenesis of NE has been suggested, and data on gene polymorphisms, in relation to the severity of AKI have been presented. Smoking is a risk factor for NE and smoking is also associated with aggravated AKI in NE. Although no specific treatment is in sight, recent case reports concerning therapy directed against vascular permeability and vasodilation are of interest. In fact, future work trying to explain the pathophysiology of AKI might need concentrated efforts towards the mechanisms of increased vascular permeability and vasodilatation, which irrespective of organ manifestation, are two major determinants of NE.

Concepts: Kidney, Gene expression, Epidemiology, Glomerulonephritis, Interstitial nephritis, Kidney diseases, Nephropathia epidemica, Puumala virus

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Isolated methylmalonic acidemia (MMA), caused by deficiency of the mitochondrial enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MUT), is often complicated by end stage renal disease that is resistant to conventional therapies, including liver transplantation. To establish a viable model of MMA renal disease, Mut was expressed in the liver of Mut(-/-) mice as a stable transgene under the control of an albumin (INS-Alb-Mut) promoter. Mut(-/-);Tg(INS-Alb-Mut) mice, although completely rescued from neonatal lethality that was displayed by Mut(-/-) mice, manifested a decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR), chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis and ultrastructural changes in the proximal tubule mitochondria associated with aberrant tubular function, as demonstrated by single-nephron GFR studies. Microarray analysis of Mut(-/-);Tg(INS-Alb-Mut) kidneys identified numerous biomarkers, including lipocalin-2, which was then used to monitor the response of the GFR to antioxidant therapy in the mouse model. Renal biopsies and biomarker analysis from a large and diverse patient cohort (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00078078) precisely replicated the findings in the animals, establishing Mut(-/-);Tg(INS-Alb-Mut) mice as a unique model of MMA renal disease. Our studies suggest proximal tubular mitochondrial dysfunction is a key pathogenic mechanism of MMA-associated kidney disease, identify lipocalin-2 as a biomarker of increased oxidative stress in the renal tubule, and demonstrate that antioxidants can attenuate the renal disease of MMA.

Concepts: Renal failure, Kidney, Nephrology, Glomerulus, Nephron, Renal cortex, Interstitial nephritis

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Acute interstitial nephritis secondary to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) frequently goes undiagnosed due to its subacute clinical presentation, which may later present as chronic kidney disease (CKD). We investigated the association of PPI use with the development of CKD and death.

Concepts: Chronic kidney disease, Kidney, Interstitial nephritis, Acute, Kidney diseases

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Recent studies and experience suggest that cefazolin might be as equally effective as anti-staphylococcal penicillins for methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) with a better safety profile and lower cost. The objective of these meta-analyses was to compare the safety of anti-staphylococcal penicillins and cefazolin. PubMed, EMBASE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts databases and websites for clinical trial registries through June 23, 2017 were searched. In addition, recent abstracts from infectious disease and pharmacy conferences were reviewed. We estimated Peto odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using random-effects models. One analysis focused on hospitalized patients and the other on outpatients. Eleven retrospective studies of hospitalized patients and three of outpatients were included. In hospitalized patients, lower nephrotoxicity (Peto OR, 0.225; 95% CI, 0.127-0.513), acute interstitial nephritis (Peto OR, 0.189; 95% CI, 0.053-0.675), hepatotoxicity (Peto OR, 0.160; 95% CI, 0.066-0.387), and drug discontinuation due to adverse reactions (Peto OR, 0.192; 95% CI, 0.089-0.414) were found with cefazolin. In outpatients, lower nephrotoxicity (Peto OR, 0.372; 95% CI, 0.192-0.722), hepatotoxicity (Peto OR, 0.313; 95% CI, 0.156-0.627), and hypersensitivity reactions (Peto OR, 0.372; 95% CI, 0.201-0.687[rsqb] were observed with cefazolin. Compared to anti-staphylococcal penicillins, cefazolin was associated with significant reductions in nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in hospitalized patients and outpatients. Additionally, cefazolin was associated with less likelihood of discontinuation due to side effects in hospitalized patients and hypersensitivity reactions in outpatients. Cefazolin should be considered a first-line option for patients with MSSA infections in which efficacy is presumed to be similar to anti-staphylococcal penicillin therapy.

Concepts: Staphylococcus aureus, Infection, Antibiotic resistance, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Meta-analysis, Penicillin, Interstitial nephritis, Nephritis

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Primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS) is a common autoimmune condition which primarily affects epithelial tissue, often including the kidney causing either tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) or more rarely, an immune complex related glomerulonephritis.

Concepts: Immune system, Kidney, Immunology, Skin, Renal pelvis, Glomerulonephritis, Interstitial nephritis, Nephritis

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Primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of the exocrine (salivary and lachrymal) glands that results in sicca symptoms (dryness of the eyes and mouth). Systemic complications can occur in pSS, but renal involvement is rare, affecting <10% patients. The most frequent form of nephropathy in pSS is tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN), in which infiltration of the kidney by plasma cells is a key feature and shows similarity to the lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of the salivary glands. Electrolyte disturbances may occur in pSS, such as renal distal tubular acidosis, diabetes insipidus, Gitelman syndrome or Fanconi syndrome. Glomerular involvement is less frequently detected in patients with pSS, but usually takes the form of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis secondary to cryoglobulinaemia. The renal prognosis in patients with pSS and TIN or glomerular disease is usually favourable, but the risk of chronic kidney disease remains high in patients with TIN. Appropriate screening must be performed at least once a year in patients with systemic pSS in order to facilitate the early detection of renal complications. In this Review we discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, differential diagnosis and treatment of renal disease in pSS.

Concepts: Chronic kidney disease, Kidney, Nephrology, Nephron, Nephrotic syndrome, Glomerulonephritis, Interstitial nephritis, Kidney diseases

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Deficiency of FANCD2/FANCI-associated nuclease 1 (FAN1) in humans leads to karyomegalic interstitial nephritis (KIN), a rare hereditary kidney disease characterized by chronic renal fibrosis, tubular degeneration, and characteristic polyploid nuclei in multiple tissues. The mechanism of how FAN1 protects cells is largely unknown but is thought to involve FAN1’s function in DNA interstrand cross-link (ICL) repair. Here, we describe a Fan1-deficient mouse and show that FAN1 is required for cellular and organismal resistance to ICLs. We show that the ubiquitin-binding zinc finger (UBZ) domain of FAN1, which is needed for interaction with FANCD2, is not required for the initial rapid recruitment of FAN1 to ICLs or for its role in DNA ICL resistance. Epistasis analyses reveal that FAN1 has cross-link repair activities that are independent of the Fanconi anemia proteins and that this activity is redundant with the 5'-3' exonuclease SNM1A. Karyomegaly becomes prominent in kidneys and livers of Fan1-deficient mice with age, and mice develop liver dysfunction. Treatment of Fan1-deficient mice with ICL-inducing agents results in pronounced thymic and bone marrow hypocellularity and the disappearance of c-kit(+) cells. Our results provide insight into the mechanism of FAN1 in ICL repair and demonstrate that the Fan1 mouse model effectively recapitulates the pathological features of human FAN1 deficiency.

Concepts: DNA, Kidney, Gene, Cell nucleus, Biology, Organ, Interstitial nephritis, Fanconi anemia