SciCombinator

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Concept: Internal jugular vein

230

Historical approaches to protect the brain from outside the skull (eg, helmets and mouthpieces) have been ineffective in reducing internal injury to the brain that arises from energy absorption during sports-related collisions. We aimed to evaluate the effects of a neck collar, which applies gentle bilateral jugular vein compression, resulting in cerebral venous engorgement to reduce head impact energy absorption during collision. Specifically, we investigated the effect of collar wearing during head impact exposure on brain microstructure integrity following a competitive high school American football season.

Concepts: Brain, Skull, Internal jugular vein, High school football, Collision

171

Recent evidence has indicated an association between chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) and multiple sclerosis. Small internal jugular veins (IJVs) (with a cross-sectional area of less than 0.4 cm2) have been previously described as difficult to catheterize, and their presence may potentially affect cerebrospinal venous drainage. In this blinded extracranial color-Doppler study we had two principal aims: first, to assess prevalence of CCSVI among Serbian MS patients compared to healthy controls; and second, to assess prevalence of small IJVs (with a CSA <= 0.4 cm2) among MS patients and controls.

Concepts: Multiple sclerosis, Internal jugular vein, Jugular vein, Common facial vein, Area, Sclerotherapy, Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency, Veins of the head and neck

143

Central vein cannulation is one of the most commonly performed procedures in intensive care. Traditionally, the jugular and subclavian vein are recommended as the first choice option. Nevertheless, these attempts are not always obtainable for critically ill patients. For this reason, the axillary vein seems to be a rational alternative approach. In this narrative review, we evaluate the usefulness of the infraclavicular access to the axillary vein. The existing evidence suggests that infraclavicular approach to the axillary vein is a reliable method of central vein catheterization, especially when performed with ultrasound guidance.

Concepts: Critical thinking, Internal jugular vein, Central venous catheter, Subclavian vein, Subclavian artery, Axillary artery, Axillary vein, Veins of the torso

68

The use of ultrasound (US) has been proposed to reduce the number of complications and to increase the safety and quality of central venous catheter (CVC) placement. In this review, we describe the rationale for the use of US during CVC placement, the basic principles of this technique, and the current evidence and existing guidelines for its use. In addition, we recommend a structured approach for US-guided central venous access for clinical practice. Static and real-time US can be used to visualize the anatomy and patency of the target vein in a short-axis and a long-axis view. US-guided needle advancement can be performed in an “out-of-plane” and an “in-plane” technique. There is clear evidence that US offers gains in safety and quality during CVC placement in the internal jugular vein. For the subclavian and femoral veins, US offers small gains in safety and quality. Based on the available evidence from clinical studies, several guidelines from medical societies strongly recommend the use of US for CVC placement in the internal jugular vein. Data from survey studies show that there is still a gap between the existing evidence and guidelines and the use of US in clinical practice. For clinical practice, we recommend a six-step systematic approach for US-guided central venous access that includes assessing the target vein (anatomy and vessel localization, vessel patency), using real-time US guidance for puncture of the vein, and confirming the correct needle, wire, and catheter position in the vein. To achieve the best skill level for CVC placement the knowledge from anatomic landmark techniques and the knowledge from US-guided CVC placement need to be combined and integrated.

Concepts: Internal jugular vein, Jugular vein, Central venous catheter, Subclavian vein, Catheter, Common facial vein, Catheters, Peripheral venous catheter

28

The anterior clinoid process (ACP) is critically related to the clinoidal portion of the internal carotid artery (ICA). The deep location of the ACP makes treatment of vascular and neoplastic lesions related to the ACP challenging. Removal of the ACP is advocated to facilitate treatment of such lesions. However injury to the clinoidal ICA remains a potential and dreadful complication of ACP removal. The aim of this study was to demonstrate an endoscopic assisted technique to perform intradural removal of the ACP via a pterional approach with continuous visualization of the clinoidal ICA.

Concepts: Internal carotid artery, Common carotid artery, External carotid artery, Carotid sinus, Internal jugular vein, Anterior clinoid process

28

Fusobacterium necrophorum causes various clinical syndromes, ranging from otitis media to life-threatening Lemierre’s syndrome. The purpose of this study was to review our experience with pediatric Fusobacterium infections. The medical records of all children aged 0 to 18 years who were diagnosed between 1999 and 2011 with Fusobacterium infection were reviewed. Fusobacterium was isolated from clinical samples of 27 children: blood cultures (n = 16), abscesses (n = 8), joint fluids (n = 2), and cerebrospinal fluid (n = 1). The median age at admission was 3.5 years (range, 7 months to 17 years). Eight children (30 %) had seizures at presentation. Ten children (37 %) underwent lumbar puncture. Fifteen children (56 %) underwent brain imaging, and in seven of these children, a thrombus was identified either in a sinus vein or in an internal jugular vein. The most common source of infection was otogenic in 19 (70 %) of the children. Six of the children presented in 2011. All patients recovered. Conclusions: Neurologic manifestations are common at presentation of children with Fusobacterium infections. In young children, the most common source of infection is otogenic. Thrombotic complications are common, and imaging should be considered in all children with Fusobacterium infections arising from the head or neck region. There was a recent increase in the isolation of this bacterium, either because of better culturing techniques and increased awareness to this entity or a true increase in infections due to this organism.

Concepts: Brain, Bacteria, Internal jugular vein, Jugular vein, Otitis media, Lumbar puncture, Fusobacteria, Fusobacterium necrophorum

28

A 15-year-old boy presented with signs of sepsis and a history of sore throat, fevers and shortness of breath. Full examination revealed an erythematous oropharynx and mild tonsillar swelling. He rapidly deteriorated requiring admission to intensive care. Blood cultures grew Fusobacterium necrophorum and an ultrasound scan performed for left neck tenderness confirmed internal jugular vein thrombosis. He was diagnosed with Lemierre’s syndrome. This condition results from pharyngitis or tonsillitis with bacterial spread to the lateral pharyngeal space. Internal jugular vein thrombosis ensues with septic emboli and metastatic infections that most frequently involve the lungs. Although increasing in incidence, diagnosis is often delayed. We discuss why and describe its clinical presentation, investigations of choice and treatment strategies.

Concepts: Pneumonia, Thrombosis, Pulmonary embolism, Internal jugular vein, Jugular vein, Common facial vein, Neck, Fusobacterium necrophorum

28

: In transarterial embolization of anterior cranial fossa and tentorial dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF), acute angulation of the feeding artery off the internal carotid artery (ICA) may render stable distal catheterization and, therefore, successful transarterial treatment difficult. In some anatomic dispositions, following selection of the feeding artery, subsequent forward force may lead to prolapse of the microcatheter into the ICA rather than advancing it into either the ophthalmic artery or the meningohypophyseal trunk.

Concepts: Internal carotid artery, Common carotid artery, External carotid artery, Internal jugular vein, Arteriovenous fistula, Fistula, Arteries of the head and neck, Ophthalmic artery

28

We report the case of a 40-year-old woman with a severe factor XI (FXI) deficiency who died from a stroke due to bilateral internal carotid arteries occlusion after a laparoscopic gastric bypass (bariatric surgery). This stroke was probably secondary to a pulmonary embolism with a paradoxical embolism through a previously unknown foramen ovale. This woman who had one severe episode of bleeding before the bypass received for the intervention a single infusion of 27 U/kg of FXI concentrate. A careful evaluation of the bleeding and thrombotic risk was performed before surgery, and despite all preventive measures, this tragic event occurred. The aim of this report is to alert medical teams to carefully balance the benefit-risk of such an intervention in a patient with a severe FXI deficiency.

Concepts: Obesity, Internal carotid artery, Common carotid artery, External carotid artery, Carotid sinus, Internal jugular vein, Factor XI, Embolism

28

Carotid puncture and insertion of a large-bore catheter into the carotid artery is a feared complication associated with internal jugular vein (IJV) cannulation. The use of ultrasound with real-time imaging of the neck vessels during needle insertion has the potential to decrease the incidence of serious complications associated with central venous access. The authors describe a new technique for ultrasound-guided IJV cannulation. The suggested “medial-oblique” approach allows for optimal imaging of the IJV and the carotid artery side by side and following the needle throughout the insertion from skin to vessel penetration in a medial-cephalad to lateral-caudad direction. This technique combines the advantages of the short-axis and long-axis approaches and minimizes the risk of carotid puncture from a medial-to-lateral needle direction.

Concepts: Blood vessel, Artery, Common carotid artery, Vein, Internal jugular vein, Jugular vein, Central venous catheter, Common facial vein