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Concept: Interferometry


To realize ground moving target indication (GMTI) for a forward-looking array, we propose a novel synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system, called rotatable cross-track interferometry SAR (Ro-XTI-SAR), for squint-looking application in this paper. By changing the angle of the cross-track baseline, the interferometry phase component of squint-looking Ro-XTI-SAR caused by the terrain height can be approximately adjusted to zero, and then the interferometry phase of Ro-XTI-SAR is only sensitive to targets' motion and can be equivalent to the along track interferometry SAR (ATI-SAR). Furthermore, the conventional displaced phase center array (DPCA) method and constant false alarm (CFAR) processing can be used to accomplish the successive clutter suppression, moving targets detection and relocation. Furthermore, the clutter suppressing performance is discussed with respect to different system parameters. Finally, some results of numerical experiments are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed system.

Concepts: Detection theory, Radar, Interferometry, Astronomical interferometer, Aperture synthesis, Synthetic aperture radar, Radar signal processing, Moving target indication


The current global projections of future sea level rise are the basis for developing inundation hazard maps. However, contributions from spatially variable coastal subsidence have generally not been considered in these projections. We use synthetic aperture radar interferometric measurements and global navigation satellite system data to show subsidence rates of less than 2 mm/year along most of the coastal areas along San Francisco Bay. However, rates exceed 10 mm/year in some areas underlain by compacting artificial landfill and Holocene mud deposits. The maps estimating 100-year inundation hazards solely based on the projection of sea level rise from various emission scenarios underestimate the area at risk of flooding by 3.7 to 90.9%, compared with revised maps that account for the contribution of local land subsidence. Given ongoing land subsidence, we project that an area of 125 to 429 km2will be vulnerable to inundation, as opposed to 51 to 413 km2considering sea level rise alone.

Concepts: Climate, Weather, Coast, Climate change, Interferometry, San Francisco Bay Area, San Francisco, San Francisco Bay


We present a synthetic-wavelength based heterodyne interferometer of optical frequency combs with wide consecutive measurement range for absolute distance measurement. The synthetic wavelength is derived from two wavelengths obtained by two band-pass filters. The interferometric phase of the synthetic wavelength is used as a marker for the pulse-to-pulse alignment, which greatly improves the accuracy of traditional peak finding method. The consecutive measurement range is enlarged by using long fiber to increase the path length difference of the reference and measurement arms. The length of the long fiber is stabilized according to the interferometric phase of a CW laser. The experimental results show the present system can realize an accuracy of 75 nm in 350 mm consecutive measurement range.

Concepts: Diffraction, Quantum mechanics, Electromagnetic radiation, Frequency, Length, Interferometry, Frequency comb, Optical heterodyne detection


Fast radio bursts are astronomical radio flashes of unknown physical nature with durations of milliseconds. Their dispersive arrival times suggest an extragalactic origin and imply radio luminosities that are orders of magnitude larger than those of all known short-duration radio transients. So far all fast radio bursts have been detected with large single-dish telescopes with arcminute localizations, and attempts to identify their counterparts (source or host galaxy) have relied on the contemporaneous variability of field sources or the presence of peculiar field stars or galaxies. These attempts have not resulted in an unambiguous association with a host or multi-wavelength counterpart. Here we report the subarcsecond localization of the fast radio burst FRB 121102, the only known repeating burst source, using high-time-resolution radio interferometric observations that directly image the bursts. Our precise localization reveals that FRB 121102 originates within 100 milliarcseconds of a faint 180-microJansky persistent radio source with a continuum spectrum that is consistent with non-thermal emission, and a faint (twenty-fifth magnitude) optical counterpart. The flux density of the persistent radio source varies by around ten per cent on day timescales, and very long baseline radio interferometry yields an angular size of less than 1.7 milliarcseconds. Our observations are inconsistent with the fast radio burst having a Galactic origin or its source being located within a prominent star-forming galaxy. Instead, the source appears to be co-located with a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus or a previously unknown type of extragalactic source. Localization and identification of a host or counterpart has been essential to understanding the origins and physics of other kinds of transient events, including gamma-ray bursts and tidal disruption events. However, if other fast radio bursts have similarly faint radio and optical counterparts, our findings imply that direct subarcsecond localizations may be the only way to provide reliable associations.

Concepts: Galaxy, Active galactic nucleus, Origin, Interferometry, Quasar, Relativistic jet, Host galaxy, Active galaxies


Optical interferometry has empowered an impressive variety of biosensing and medical imaging techniques. A widely held assumption is that devices based on optical interferometry require coherent light to generate a precise optical signature in response to an analyte. Here we disprove that assumption. By directly embedding light emitters into subwavelength cavities of plasmonic interferometers, we demonstrate coherent generation of surface plasmons even when light with extremely low degrees of spatial and temporal coherence is employed. This surprising finding enables novel sensor designs with cheaper and smaller light sources, and consequently increases accessibility to a variety of analytes, such as biomarkers in physiological fluids, or even airborne nanoparticles. Furthermore, these nanosensors can now be arranged along open detection surfaces, and in dense arrays, accelerating the rate of parallel target screening used in drug discovery, among other high volume and high sensitivity applications.

Concepts: Electron, Optics, Laser, Medical imaging, Coherence, Nanotechnology, Surface plasmon resonance, Interferometry


A phase unwrapping algorithm for interferometric fringes based on the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) technique is proposed. The algorithm can bring about accurate phase unwrapping and good noise suppression simultaneously by incorporating the true phase and its derivative in the state vector estimation through the UKF process. Simulations indicate that the proposed algorithm has better accuracy than some widely employed phase unwrapping approaches in the same noise condition. Also, the time consumption of the algorithm is reasonably acceptable. Applications of the algorithm in our different optical interferometer systems are provided to demonstrate its practicability with good performance. We hope this algorithm can be a practical approach that can help to reduce the systematic errors significantly induced by phase unwrapping process for interferometric measurements such as wavefront distortion testing, surface figure testing of optics, etc.

Concepts: Estimation theory, Signal processing, Kalman filter, Filtering problem, Wiener filter, Ensemble Kalman filter, Particle filter, Interferometry


In this paper we present experimental studies on diffraction of V-point singularities through equilateral and isosceles right triangular apertures. When V-point index, also called Poincare-Hopf index (η), of the optical field is +1, the diffraction disintegrates it into two monstars/lemons. When V-point index η is -1, diffraction produces two stars. The diffraction pattern, unlike phase singularity, is insensitive to polarity of the polarization singularity and the intensity pattern remains invariant. Higher order V-point singularities are generated using Sagnac interferometer and it is observed that the diffraction disintegrates them into lower order C-points.

Concepts: Diffraction, Optics, Fundamental physics concepts, Electromagnetic radiation, Wave, Sound, Interferometry, F-number


Michelson interferometry is one of the most widely used techniques for accuracy measurements. Its main characteristic feature is to infer a displacement in one of the arms of the interferometer from a phase measurement. Two different twisted beams, also called vortex beams, with opposite twisted rotations in each arm of the interferometer interfere in a daisy flower-like pattern. The number of petals is twice the topological charge. Their position depends on the relative phase of the beams. Naked eye detection of 44 pm displacements is achieved. The sensitivity of such an interferometer together with possible further improvements, and applications are then discussed.

Concepts: Quantum mechanics, Measurement, Eye, Interferometry, Interferometers, Astronomical interferometer, Aperture synthesis, Michelson interferometer


We present deformation patterns in the Lake Urmia Causeway (LUC) in NW Iran based on data collected from four SAR sensors in the form of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) time series. Sixty-eight images from Envisat (2004-2008), ALOS-1 (2006-2010), TerraSAR-X (2012-2013) and Sentinel-1 (2015-2017) were acquired, and 227 filtered interferograms were generated using the small baseline subset (SBAS) technique. The rate of line-of-sight (LOS) subsidence of the LUC peaked at 90 mm/year between 2012 and 2013, mainly due to the loss of most of the water in Lake Urmia. Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted on 200 randomly selected time series of the LUC, and the results are presented in the form of the three major components. The InSAR scores obtained from the PCA were used in a hydro-thermal model to investigate the dynamics of consolidation settlement along the LUC based on detrended water level and temperature data. The results can be used to establish a geodetic network around the LUC to identify more detailed deformation patterns and to help plan future efforts to reduce the possible costs of damage.

Concepts: Principal component analysis, Radar, Singular spectrum analysis, Interferometry, Geodesy, Aperture synthesis, Synthetic aperture radar, Interferometric synthetic aperture radar


In this article we report a new, simple, and reliable optical read-out detection method able to assess Rotavirus present in human sera as well as in the viral pollution sources. It is based on the interference of two interferometers used as biophotonic transducers. The method significantly improves the optical label-free biosensing response measuring both, the concentration of the AgR and its corresponding size. Two different immunoassays were carried out: Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA), and the recognition by its antibody (anti-BSA); and Rotavirus (AgR) and the recognition by its antibody (anti-AgR). In the cases studied, and using as model interferometer a simple Fabry-Perot transducer, we demonstrate a biosensing enhancement of two orders of magnitude in the Limit of Detection (LoD). In fact, this read-out optical method may have significant implications to enhance other optical label-free photonic transducers reported in the scientific literature.

Concepts: Biology, Species, Measurement, ELISA, Serum albumin, Bovine serum albumin, Photonics, Interferometry