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Concept: Interface


We present a formulation of 4-component relativistic self-consistent field (SCF) theory for a molecular solute described within the framework of the polarizable continuum model (PCM) for solvation. The linear response function for a 4-component PCM-SCF state is also derived. The explicit form of the additional contributions to the first-order response equations is given. The implementation of such a 4-component PCM-SCF model, as carried out in a development version of the DIRAC program package, is documented. In particular, we present the newly developed application programming interface (API) PCMSolver used in the actual implementation with DIRAC. To demonstrate the applicability of the approach we present and analyze calculations of solvation effects on the geometries, electric dipole moments and static electric dipole polarizabilities for the Group 16 Dihydrides H2X (X = O, S, Se, Te, Po).

Concepts: Fundamental physics concepts, Model theory, Dipole, Application programming interface, Interface, Electric dipole moment, Polarizable continuum model, Dirac delta function


We used native sensorimotor representations of fingers in a brain-machine interface (BMI) to achieve immediate online control of individual prosthetic fingers.

Concepts: Prosthesis, Finger, Interface


The use of advanced machine learning algorithms in experimental materials science is limited by the lack of sufficiently large and diverse datasets amenable to data mining. If publicly open, such data resources would also enable materials research by scientists without access to expensive experimental equipment. Here, we report on our progress towards a publicly open High Throughput Experimental Materials (HTEM) Database ( This database currently contains 140,000 sample entries, characterized by structural (100,000), synthetic (80,000), chemical (70,000), and optoelectronic (50,000) properties of inorganic thin film materials, grouped in >4,000 sample entries across >100 materials systems; more than a half of these data are publicly available. This article shows how the HTEM database may enable scientists to explore materials by browsing web-based user interface and an application programming interface. This paper also describes a HTE approach to generating materials data, and discusses the laboratory information management system (LIMS), that underpin HTEM database. Finally, this manuscript illustrates how advanced machine learning algorithms can be adopted to materials science problems using this open data resource.

Concepts: Algorithm, Chemistry, Machine learning, Learning, Computer program, Application programming interface, Interface, User interface


The second meeting of the International Collaboration for Automation of Systematic Reviews (ICASR) was held 3-4 October 2016 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. ICASR is an interdisciplinary group whose aim is to maximize the use of technology for conducting rapid, accurate, and efficient systematic reviews of scientific evidence. Having automated tools for systematic review should enable more transparent and timely review, maximizing the potential for identifying and translating research findings to practical application. The meeting brought together multiple stakeholder groups including users of summarized research, methodologists who explore production processes and systematic review quality, and technologists such as software developers, statisticians, and vendors. This diversity of participants was intended to ensure effective communication with numerous stakeholders about progress toward automation of systematic reviews and stimulate discussion about potential solutions to identified challenges. The meeting highlighted challenges, both simple and complex, and raised awareness among participants about ongoing efforts by various stakeholders. An outcome of this forum was to identify several short-term projects that participants felt would advance the automation of tasks in the systematic review workflow including (1) fostering better understanding about available tools, (2) developing validated datasets for testing new tools, (3) determining a standard method to facilitate interoperability of tools such as through an application programming interface or API, and (4) establishing criteria to evaluate the quality of tools' output. ICASR 2016 provided a beneficial forum to foster focused discussion about tool development and resources and reconfirm ICASR members' commitment toward systematic reviews' automation.

Concepts: Time, Systematic review, Computer program, Peer review, Application programming interface, Interface, Stakeholder, 2016


Thousands of mobile health apps are now available for use on mobile phones for a variety of uses and conditions, including cancer survivorship. Many of these apps appear to deliver health behavior interventions but may fail to consider design considerations based in human computer interface and health behavior change theories.

Concepts: Vacuum tube, Object-oriented programming, Mobile phone, Interface, Rotary dial, Transtheoretical model, Push-button telephone


The Proteomics Standards Initiative (PSI) of the Human Proteome Organization (HUPO) has now been developing and promoting open community standards and software tools in the field of proteomics for 15 years. Under the guidance of the chair, co-chairs, and other leadership positions, the PSI working groups are tasked with the development and maintenance of community standards via special workshops and ongoing work. Among the existing, ratified standards, the PSI working groups continue to update PSI-MI XML, MITAB, mzML, mzIdentML, mzQuantML, mzTab, and the MIAPE (Minimum Information About a Proteomics Experiment) guidelines with the advance of new technologies and techniques. Further, new standards are currently either in the final stages of completion (proBed and proBAM for proteogenomics results, as well as PEFF) or in early stages of design (a spectral library standard format, a universal spectrum identifier, the qcML quality control format, and the Protein Expression Interface (PROXI) web services Application Programming Interface). In this work we review the current status of all these aspects of the PSI, describe synergies with other efforts such as the ProteomeXchange Consortium, the Human Proteome Project, and the metabolomics community, and provide a look at future directions of the PSI.

Concepts: Time, Protein, Proteomics, Application programming interface, Interface, Web service, Human Proteome Organization, Proteomics Standards Initiative


We present TrackMate, an open source Fiji plugin for the automated, semi-automated, and manual tracking of single-particles. It offers a versatile and modular solution that works out of the box for end users, through a simple and intuitive user interface. It is also easily scriptable and adaptable, operating equally well on 1D over time, 2D over time, 3D over time, or other single and multi-channel image variants. TrackMate provides several visualization and analysis tools that aid in assessing the relevance of results. The utility of TrackMate is further enhanced through its ability to be readily customized to meet specific tracking problems. TrackMate is an extensible platform where developers can easily write their own detection, particle linking, visualization or analysis algorithms within the TrackMate environment. This evolving framework provides researchers with the opportunity to quickly develop and optimize new algorithms based on existing TrackMate modules without the need of having to write de novo user interfaces, including visualization, analysis and exporting tools. The current capabilities of TrackMate are presented in the context of three different biological problems. First, we perform Caenorhabditis-elegans lineage analysis to assess how light-induced damage during imaging impairs its early development. Our TrackMate-based lineage analysis indicates the lack of a cell-specific light-sensitive mechanism. Second, we investigate the recruitment of NEMO (NF-κB essential modulator) clusters in fibroblasts after stimulation by the cytokine IL-1 and show that photodamage can generate artifacts in the shape of TrackMate characterized movements that confuse motility analysis. Finally, we validate the use of TrackMate for quantitative lifetime analysis of clathrin-mediated endocytosis in plant cells.

Concepts: Virtual reality, Interface, User interface, User interface design


The ms-data-core-api is a free, open-source library for developing computational proteomics tools and pipelines. The Application Program Interface, written in Java, enables rapid tool creation by providing a robust, pluggable programming interface and common data model. The data model is based on controlled vocabularies/ontologies and captures the whole range of data types included in common proteomics experimental workflows, going from spectra to identifications to quantitative results. The library contains readers for three of the most used Proteomics Standards Initiative standard file formats: mzML, mzIdentML, and mzTab. In addition to mzML, it also supports other common mass spectra formats: dta, ms2, mgf, pkl, apl (text-based), mzXML and mzData (XML-based). Also, it can be used to read PRIDE XML, the original format used by the PRIDE database, one of the world-leading proteomics resources. Finally, we present a set of algorithms and tools whose implementation illustrates the simplicity of developing applications using the library.

Concepts: Computer, Computer program, Java, Unix, Application programming interface, Interface, Application software, File format


The Drug-Gene Interaction Database (DGIdb, is a web resource that consolidates disparate data sources describing drug-gene interactions and gene druggability. It provides an intuitive graphical user interface and a documented application programming interface (API) for querying these data. DGIdb was assembled through an extensive manual curation effort, reflecting the combined information of twenty-seven sources. For DGIdb 2.0, substantial updates have been made to increase content and improve its usefulness as a resource for mining clinically actionable drug targets. Specifically, nine new sources of drug-gene interactions have been added, including seven resources specifically focused on interactions linked to clinical trials. These additions have more than doubled the overall count of drug-gene interactions. The total number of druggable gene claims has also increased by 30%. Importantly, a majority of the unrestricted, publicly-accessible sources used in DGIdb are now automatically updated on a weekly basis, providing the most current information for these sources. Finally, a new web view and API have been developed to allow searching for interactions by drug identifiers to complement existing gene-based search functionality. With these updates, DGIdb represents a comprehensive and user friendly tool for mining the druggable genome for precision medicine hypothesis generation.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Unix, Application programming interface, Interface, Operating system, Graphical user interface, Web service


Large amounts of epigenomic data are generated under the umbrella of the International Human Epigenome Consortium, which aims to establish 1000 reference epigenomes within the next few years. These data have the potential to unravel the complexity of epigenomic regulation. However, their effective use is hindered by the lack of flexible and easy-to-use methods for data retrieval. Extracting region sets of interest is a cumbersome task that involves several manual steps: identifying the relevant experiments, downloading the corresponding data files and filtering the region sets of interest. Here we present the DeepBlue Epigenomic Data Server, which streamlines epigenomic data analysis as well as software development. DeepBlue provides a comprehensive programmatic interface for finding, selecting, filtering, summarizing and downloading region sets. It contains data from four major epigenome projects, namely ENCODE, ROADMAP, BLUEPRINT and DEEP. DeepBlue comes with a user manual, examples and a well-documented application programming interface (API). The latter is accessed via the XML-RPC protocol supported by many programming languages. To demonstrate usage of the API and to enable convenient data retrieval for non-programmers, we offer an optional web interface. DeepBlue can be openly accessed at

Concepts: Computer, Computer program, Programming language, Protocol, Application programming interface, Interface, Technical communication, Web service