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Concept: Intense pulsed light


Abstract Background: Recently, tranexamic acid (TNA) containing oral medication has gained public attention, claiming for whitening effects. Objective: This study was performed to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of oral TNA as an adjuvant to intense pulsed light (IPL) and laser treatment in melasma. Methods: A total of 51 patients were included in the study. Patients who have been on oral TNA during IPL and laser treatments (group A) and those who were treated with only IPL and laser (group B) were analyzed (from winter to summer). Modified melasma area and severity index (mMASI) scores were blindly evaluated by two investigators using digital photographs taken at each visit. Results: The mean modified MASI score decreased from 11.33 ± 7.07 to 6.21 ± 5.04 in group A and from 11.70 ± 6.72 to 8.93 ± 5.89 in group B (baseline vs. 2 weeks after the last treatment, p = 0.005). Modified MASI score right before and after IPL were more reduced in group A. No serious adverse effects were reported up to 8 months of oral TNA medication. Conclusion: Oral TNA may improve clinical efficacy in light- or laser-based melasma treatment especially during the period of relative high sun exposure without serious adverse effects.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Ultraviolet, Light, Laser, Stimulated emission, Effectiveness, Infrared, Intense pulsed light


BACKGROUND: Unwanted hair growth is a common aesthetic problem. Laser hair removal has emerged as a leading treatment option for long-term depilation. OBJECTIVES: To extensively review the literature on laser hair removal pertaining to its theoretical basis, current laser and light-based devices, and their complications. Special treatment recommendations for darker skin types were considered. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive literature search related to the long-pulse alexandrite (755 nm), long-pulse diode (810 nm), long-pulse neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG; 1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) system, as well as newer home-use devices, was conducted. RESULTS: The literature supports the use of the alexandrite, diode, Nd:YAG and IPL devices for long-term hair removal. Because of its longer wavelength, the Nd:YAG is the best laser system to use for pigmented skin. Further research is needed regarding the safety and efficacy of home-use devices. CONCLUSION: Current in-office laser hair removal devices effectively provide a durable solution for unwanted hair removal.

Concepts: Light, Hirsutism, Yttrium aluminium garnet, Intense pulsed light, Hair removal, Laser hair removal, Depilation, Electrology


The purpose of our study was to verify the results of the association of Q-switched Nd: YAG non-ablative fractionated with intense pulsed light, in order to treat patients with refractory melasma. The combination of these two devices seems to be the best treatment to combat hyperpigmentation produced by melasma, with low occurrence of side effects, which may be justified by the selective photothermolysis at subcellular level.

Concepts: Laser, The Association, Intense pulsed light, Hair removal, Depilation


To investigate the change from baseline of inflammatory markers in tears of dry eye disease(DED) subjects due to meibomian gland dysfunction(MGD) after IPL(intense pulsed light) treatment and meibomian gland expression(MGE) compared to sham treatment, and the correlations with ocular surface parameters.

Concepts: Inflammation, Eye, Tears, Meibomian gland, Intense pulsed light


The development and use of light and lasers for medical and cosmetic procedures has increased exponentially over the past decade. This review article focuses on the incidence of reported cases of skin cancer post laser or IPL treatment. The existing evidence base of over 25 years of laser and IPL use to date has not raised any concerns regarding its long-term safety with only a few anecdotal cases of melanoma post treatment over two decades of use; therefore, there is no evidence to suggest that there is a credible cancer risk. Although laser and IPL technology has not been known to cause skin cancer, this does not mean that laser and IPL therapies are without long-term risks. Light therapies and lasers to treat existing lesions and CO2 laser resurfacing can be a preventative measure against BCC and SCC tumour formation by removing photo-damaged keratinocytes and encouraged re-epithelisation from stem cells located deeper in the epidermis. A review of the relevant literature has been performed to address the issue of long-term IPL safety, focussing on DNA damage, oxidative stress induction and the impact of adverse events.

Concepts: Cancer, Ultraviolet, The Canon of Medicine, Laser, Avicenna, Squamous cell carcinoma, Skin cancer, Intense pulsed light



Intense pulsed light (IPL) is a broad spectrum incoherent light which is produced by high-output xenon lamp. Since the invention of the first-generation IPL in 1994, IPL technology has been developing rapidly and extensively utilized in multiple fields relevant to dermatology across the world. In 2004, the fourth-generation IPL system was introduced with the optimal pulse technology (OPT) and has soon been used for cosmetic purposes all over the world. In 2002, Dr. Toyos found that the meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) and dye eye disease (DED)symptoms of the rosacea patients who received IPL treatment have been improving significantly, therefore he started to explore the application of IPL system to treatment of dry eye disease. Several recent clinical studies have demonstrated the therapeutic potential of IPL for improving the symptoms and signs of MGD and DED. However, the published data of IPL treatment for MGD and DED is limited, the mechanism of IPL treatment for MGD and DED remained unclear and more relevant researches needed to be done in the future. This article discusses the clinical application history and general mechanism of IPL, and introduces the treatment of IPL for MGD and DED. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2018, 54: 140-143).

Concepts: Medicine, Disease, Symptom, Eye, Ophthalmology, Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, Meibomian gland, Intense pulsed light


This study aimed to evaluate the effect of IPL treatment on Asian skin by reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) analysis. Ten Asian female volunteers (39~54 years old, Fitzpatrick skin type III~IV) received five monthly IPL treatments. RCM skin images were evaluated, and several skin physiological parameters including thickness of stratum corneum, minimal thickness of epidermis, thickness of basal layer, density of dermal papillae, and mean diameter of papillae capillaries were measured both at baseline and 1 month after the last treatment. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was evaluated, as well. Thickness of stratum corneum was 4.80 ± 1.48 μm before IPL treatment and 5.50 ± 1.35 μm after treatment (p = 0.322). Both minimal thickness of epidermis and thickness of basal layer were significantly increased (p = 0.002 and 0.018, respectively) after IPL treatment. Dermal papillae density was significantly increased (p = 0.035), whereas mean capillary diameter was reduced significantly (p = 0.035). TEWL was slightly increased after treatment, while the difference was not significant on either T-zone or U-zone (p = 0.085 on T-zone and p = 0.114 on U-zone). RCM imaging is a feasible method to evaluate the effect of IPL effect on human skin. Moreover, IPL treatment serves to be highly safe in skin rejuvenation.

Concepts: Capillary, Skin, Epidermis, Human skin color, Skin anatomy, Stratum corneum, Ibn al-Nafis, Intense pulsed light


To observe (1) changes in meibomian gland (MG) after exposure to intense pulsed light (IPL) and (2) to understand the mechanism by which IPL treats meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) in patients.

Concepts: Meibomian gland, Intense pulsed light


The visible signs of photodamage can be improved by intense pulsed light (IPL). Active ingredients in cosmeceuticals also have effects on skin quality and pigmentation, and can camouflage post-treatment side effects. Combination therapies utilizing different treatment modalities have been shown to optimize clinical outcomes for skin rejuvenation and patient satisfaction.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Medicine, Medical terms, Effectiveness, Avicenna, Sunlight, Human skin color, Intense pulsed light