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Concept: Intense pulsed light


Abstract Background: Recently, tranexamic acid (TNA) containing oral medication has gained public attention, claiming for whitening effects. Objective: This study was performed to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of oral TNA as an adjuvant to intense pulsed light (IPL) and laser treatment in melasma. Methods: A total of 51 patients were included in the study. Patients who have been on oral TNA during IPL and laser treatments (group A) and those who were treated with only IPL and laser (group B) were analyzed (from winter to summer). Modified melasma area and severity index (mMASI) scores were blindly evaluated by two investigators using digital photographs taken at each visit. Results: The mean modified MASI score decreased from 11.33 ± 7.07 to 6.21 ± 5.04 in group A and from 11.70 ± 6.72 to 8.93 ± 5.89 in group B (baseline vs. 2 weeks after the last treatment, p = 0.005). Modified MASI score right before and after IPL were more reduced in group A. No serious adverse effects were reported up to 8 months of oral TNA medication. Conclusion: Oral TNA may improve clinical efficacy in light- or laser-based melasma treatment especially during the period of relative high sun exposure without serious adverse effects.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Ultraviolet, Light, Laser, Stimulated emission, Effectiveness, Infrared, Intense pulsed light


BACKGROUND: Unwanted hair growth is a common aesthetic problem. Laser hair removal has emerged as a leading treatment option for long-term depilation. OBJECTIVES: To extensively review the literature on laser hair removal pertaining to its theoretical basis, current laser and light-based devices, and their complications. Special treatment recommendations for darker skin types were considered. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive literature search related to the long-pulse alexandrite (755 nm), long-pulse diode (810 nm), long-pulse neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG; 1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) system, as well as newer home-use devices, was conducted. RESULTS: The literature supports the use of the alexandrite, diode, Nd:YAG and IPL devices for long-term hair removal. Because of its longer wavelength, the Nd:YAG is the best laser system to use for pigmented skin. Further research is needed regarding the safety and efficacy of home-use devices. CONCLUSION: Current in-office laser hair removal devices effectively provide a durable solution for unwanted hair removal.

Concepts: Light, Hirsutism, Yttrium aluminium garnet, Intense pulsed light, Hair removal, Laser hair removal, Depilation, Electrology


The purpose of our study was to verify the results of the association of Q-switched Nd: YAG non-ablative fractionated with intense pulsed light, in order to treat patients with refractory melasma. The combination of these two devices seems to be the best treatment to combat hyperpigmentation produced by melasma, with low occurrence of side effects, which may be justified by the selective photothermolysis at subcellular level.

Concepts: Laser, The Association, Intense pulsed light, Hair removal, Depilation


Amputees may suffer from dermatoses such as folliculitis and pilonidal sinus caused by pressure on the stump in hairy parts of the skin. These conditions commonly cause pain and need treatment that result in abandonment of prosthesis use and disrupt the patient’s daily living activities. We believe these conditions may be easily, effectively and cheaply prevented with the use of intense pulsed light technology, which is produced for home epilation. The use of this kind of epilator in the early period post-amputation may prevent the development of folliculitis and pilonidal sinus. This application may also be cost-effective in long term.

Concepts: Causality, Skin, Hair, Hair follicle, Intense pulsed light, Hair removal, Depilation, Photorejuvenation


To investigate the change from baseline of inflammatory markers in tears of dry eye disease(DED) subjects due to meibomian gland dysfunction(MGD) after IPL(intense pulsed light) treatment and meibomian gland expression(MGE) compared to sham treatment, and the correlations with ocular surface parameters.

Concepts: Inflammation, Eye, Tears, Meibomian gland, Intense pulsed light


The development and use of light and lasers for medical and cosmetic procedures has increased exponentially over the past decade. This review article focuses on the incidence of reported cases of skin cancer post laser or IPL treatment. The existing evidence base of over 25 years of laser and IPL use to date has not raised any concerns regarding its long-term safety with only a few anecdotal cases of melanoma post treatment over two decades of use; therefore, there is no evidence to suggest that there is a credible cancer risk. Although laser and IPL technology has not been known to cause skin cancer, this does not mean that laser and IPL therapies are without long-term risks. Light therapies and lasers to treat existing lesions and CO2 laser resurfacing can be a preventative measure against BCC and SCC tumour formation by removing photo-damaged keratinocytes and encouraged re-epithelisation from stem cells located deeper in the epidermis. A review of the relevant literature has been performed to address the issue of long-term IPL safety, focussing on DNA damage, oxidative stress induction and the impact of adverse events.

Concepts: Cancer, Ultraviolet, The Canon of Medicine, Laser, Avicenna, Squamous cell carcinoma, Skin cancer, Intense pulsed light


Purpose:To evaluate the effect of intense pulsed light (IPL) applied to the periocular area for meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) in a prospective, double-masked, placebo-controlled, paired-eye study. Methods:Twenty-eight participants underwent IPL treatment (E>Eye, E-Swin, France), with homogeneously sequenced light pulses delivered to one eye and placebo treatment to the partner control eye at 1, 15, and 45 days following baseline (BL) evaluation. Lipid layer grade (LLG), non-invasive tear breakup time (NIBUT), tear evaporation rate (TER), tear meniscus height (TMH) and subjective symptom score (SPEED) were compared to BL and control values at each visit. Results:LLG improved significantly from BL to Day 45 in the treated eye (p<0.001), but not the control eye (p=0.714) with 82% of treated eyes improving by at least one LLG. NIBUT also improved significantly from BL to Day 45 in the treated (p<0.001), but not control eye (p=0.056), and was significantly longer than in the treated eye at Day 45 (14.1 ± 9.8s vs 8.6 ± 8.2s, p<0.001). TER was not significantly lower at Day 45 compared to BL in the control eye (p=0.165), but approached significance in the treated eye (p = 0.080). TMH does not change from BL in either eye (p>0.05). SPEED scores improved at each visit in both the treated (p<0.001) and control eye (p=0.002), with 86% of participants noting reduced symptoms in the treated eye by Day 45. Conclusions:IPL with multiple sculpted pulses shows therapeutic potential for MGD, improving tear film quality and reducing symptoms of dry eye.

Concepts: Improve, Symptoms, Symptom, Eye, Placebo, Tears, Meibomian gland, Intense pulsed light


To determine the efficacy and safety of intense pulsed light (IPL) applied directly on the eyelids and meibomian gland expression (MGX) in treating meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD).

Concepts: Meibomian gland, Intense pulsed light


Recently, the demand for stretchable strain sensors used for detecting human motion is rapidly increasing. This paper proposes high-performance strain sensors based on Ag flake/Ag nanocrystal (NC) hybrid materials incorporated into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer. The addition of Ag NCs into an Ag flake network enhances the electrical conductivity and sensitivity of the strain sensors. The intense localized heating of Ag flakes/NCs is induced by intense pulsed light (IPL) irradiation, to achieve efficient sintering of the Ag NCs within a second, without damaging the PDMS matrix. This leads to significant improvement in the sensor sensitivity. Our strain sensors are highly stretchable (maximum strain = 80%) and sensitive (gauge factor = 7.1) with high mechanical stability over 10 000 stretching cycles under 50% strain. For practical demonstration, the fabrication of a smart glove for detecting the motions of fingers and a sports band for measuring the applied arm strength is also presented. This study provides an effective method for fabricating elastomer-based high-performance stretchable electronics.

Concepts: Electrical conductivity, Sensor, Stretching, Motion, Intense pulsed light