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Concept: Integers


Women born around 1940 in countries such as the UK and USA were the first generation in which many smoked substantial numbers of cigarettes throughout adult life. Hence, only in the 21st century can we observe directly the full effects of prolonged smoking, and of prolonged cessation, on mortality among women in the UK.

Concepts: Germany, England, Wales, Scotland, 21st century, London, Barbecue, Integers


BACKGROUND: Pilonidal sinus is a common condition often managed with invasive surgery associated with a significant morbidity and often a prolonged recovery time. Fibrin glue has been used in our institution as an alternative to conventional surgery. The purpose of this study was to perform a service evaluation of patient satisfaction and recovery following fibrin glue treatment for pilonidal sinus. METHODS: All pilonidal glue procedures for a single surgeon were identified from theatre and consultant diary records from March 2007 to September 2011. A questionnaire was sent by post to all patients. Patient satisfaction, time to return to normal activities, the need for further procedures and whether they would recommend a glue procedure to a friend were evaluated. RESULTS: Ninety-three patients were identified, accounting for a total of 119 glue procedures and 57/93 responses were received (61 %). The median age of respondents was 26 (17-70) years. Seventy-nine per cent (n = 45) were satisfied, pleased or very pleased with the result of their procedure. Fifty-four per cent (n = 31) were back to normal activities within a week with a further 17 % (n = 10) back to normal activities within 2 weeks. Seventy-four per cent (n = 42) required no further treatment. Of the 15 patients requiring a further procedure, 3 went on to have a repeat glue treatment which resulted in complete healing. Eighty-two per cent (n = 47) would recommend a glue procedure to a friend. CONCLUSIONS: Fibrin gluing for pilonidal sinus should be considered as first-line treatment for most pilonidal sinuses. It has a high level of patient satisfaction and allows a rapid return to normal activities in this group of patients of working age.

Concepts: Patient, Hospital, Surgery, Physician, Pilonidal cyst, Adhesive, Integers, Adhesives


Scratch is a programming environment and an online community where young people can create, share, learn, and communicate. In collaboration with the Scratch Team at MIT, we created a longitudinal dataset of public activity in the Scratch online community during its first five years (2007-2012). The dataset comprises 32 tables with information on more than 1 million Scratch users, nearly 2 million Scratch projects, more than 10 million comments, more than 30 million visits to Scratch projects, and more. To help researchers understand this dataset, and to establish the validity of the data, we also include the source code of every version of the software that operated the website, as well as the software used to generate this dataset. We believe this is the largest and most comprehensive downloadable dataset of youth programming artifacts and communication.

Concepts: Million, Computer program, Youth, Programming language, Source code, Integers, Programmer, 10000000


In our study, we sought to report the management, clinical outcomes, and follow-up rates of patients who presented for evaluation of breast abscess in the Emergency Department (ED) after hours. A retrospective search of ultrasound reports at our institution identified all patients from January 1, 2009 to June 30, 2013 who were scanned in the ED after hours to evaluate for breast abscess. Patient demographics, clinical information, imaging findings, follow-up rates, and outcomes were reviewed. One hundred eighty-five patients were included in the study. Forty-four percent (86/185) of the patients were diagnosed with abscess based on ultrasound findings in the ED. Twenty-seven percent (23/86) were recently post-operative, and 12 % (10/86) were postpartum/breastfeeding. Mastitis was the diagnosis in the remaining 54 % (99/185). Only 1/86 cases were associated with breast cancer. Seventy-seven percent (66/86) of patients were treated with an invasive procedure; 39 % (26/66) had surgical evacuation, 30 % (20/66) image-guided drainage, 23 % (15/66) bedside or clinic incision and drainage, and 8 % (5/66) palpation-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA). Seventy-seven percent (143/185) of patients had clinical and/or imaging follow-up. Forty-four percent (63/143) had long-term follow-up (≥3 months). Almost 50 % of the patients who presented to the ED for evaluation of abscess were diagnosed with abscess while the remaining patients were diagnosed with mastitis. Appropriate clinical and/or imaging follow-up occurred in 77 %. Long-term follow-up (≥3 months) occurred more frequently in patients older than 30 years of age. Appropriate follow-up does not occur in approximately one fourth of cases, suggesting that additional clinician and patient education is warranted.

Concepts: Breast cancer, Biopsy, Pathology, Hospital, Surgery, Medical tests, Needle aspiration biopsy, Integers


For some drugs, safety concerns are only discovered after they have been on the market, sometimes for several years. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has adopted several policies that could increase the likelihood of approving a potentially unsafe medication. We attempted to quantify the number of exposures in the United States to drugs that were newly approved but later withdrawn from the market. We obtained a list of all drugs approved and subsequently withdrawn from the U.S. market due to safety concerns between 1993 and 2010. Using a representative sample of outpatient physician office visits in the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, we estimated the number of visits in the United States at which these unsafe drugs were prescribed. Seventeen drugs were approved and later withdrawn during this 18-year period and were prescribed at 112 million physician office visits in the United States. Nine of these drugs were prescribed more than 1 million times before their market withdrawal. New drugs that are later withdrawn due to being unsafe are frequently prescribed in the United States. To minimize the negative health consequences of prescribing potentially unsafe medications, we should reconsider some of the FDA policies that encourage the rapid approval and dissemination of new drugs.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Medicine, United States, Pharmaceutical drug, New York City, Food and Drug Administration, Integers, 10000000


BACKGROUND: Up to date information on poisoning trends is important. This study reports the epidemiology of all hospitalized acute poisonings in Oslo, including mortality, follow-up referrals, and whether the introduction of over-the-counter sales of paracetamol outside pharmacies had an impact on the frequency of poisonings. METHODS: All acute poisonings of adults (>=16 years) treated at the five hospitals in Oslo from April 2008 to April 2009 were included consecutively in an observational cross-sectional multicentre study. A standardized form was completed by the treating physician, which covered the study aims. All deaths by poisoning in and outside hospitals were registered at the Institute of Forensic Medicine. RESULTS: There were 1065 hospital admissions of 912 individuals; 460 (50 %) were male, and the median age was 36 years. The annual incidence was 2.0 per 1000. The most frequent toxic agents were ethanol (18 %), benzodiazepines (15 %), paracetamol (11 %), and opioids (11 %). Physicians classified 46 % as possible or definite suicide attempts, 37 % as accidental overdoses with substances of abuse (AOSA), and 16 % as other accidents. Twenty-four per cent were discharged without any follow-up and the no follow-up odds were highest for AOSA. There were 117 deaths (eight in hospital), of which 75 % were males, and the median age was 41 years. Thus, the annual mortality rate was 25 per 100 000 and the in-hospital mortality was 0.8 %. Opioids were the most frequent cause of death. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of hospitalized acute poisonings in Oslo was similar to that in 2003 and there was an equal sex distribution. Compared with a study performed in Oslo in 2003, there has been an increase in poisonings with a suicidal intention. The in-hospital mortality was low and nine out of ten deaths occurred outside hospitals. Opioids were the leading cause of death, so preventive measures should be encouraged among substance abusers. The number of poisonings caused by paracetamol remained unchanged after the introduction of over-the-counter sales outside pharmacies and there were no deaths, so over-the-counter sales may be considered safe.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Death, Mortality rate, Hospital, Medical statistics, Demography, Suicide, Integers


Background Hall technique preformed metal crowns (HTPMCs) have been increasing in use recently, but little is currently known about their use by specialists.Aim To investigate the views and usage of HTPMCs by UK specialist paediatric dentists.Design This was a prospective questionnaire-based study, distributed online to all specialists on the British Society of Paediatric Dentistry email list between July and September 2014.Results Ninety-four questionnaires were completed. The majority of respondents, 65% (61) worked in teaching hospitals, followed by community dental services, 37% (35). Ninety-six percent (89) reported that they used HTPMCs in their practice. Fifty-eight percent (54) used HTPMCs as a treatment option for restoring symptomless carious primary molars, and 15% (14) only when unable to provide conventional restoration. Twenty-three percent (21) used HTPMCs as the treatment of choice. Only 4% (4) of respondents never used them. Sixty percent (53) had been using HTPMCs for over five years. Seventy-six percent (68) would consider placing HTPMCs under inhalation sedation, and 26% (23) under general anaesthesia. Over 90% (85) believed that HTPMCs are suitable for undergraduate teaching, general practice, postgraduate training and specialist practice.Conclusion HTPMCs are widely used among specialist paediatric dentists in the UK.

Concepts: Physician, United Kingdom, Anesthesia, Dental implant, Dentistry, Prime number, Integers, Nontotient


We examined the relationship between the tobacco industry and the journal Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology (RTP) using the Truth Tobacco Industry Documents Library and internet sources. We determined the funding relationships, and categorised the conclusions of all 52 RTP papers on tobacco or nicotine between January 2013 and June 2015, as “positive”, “negative” or “neutral” for the tobacco industry. RTP’s editor, 57% (4/7) of associate editors and 37% (14/38) of editorial board members had worked or consulted for tobacco companies. Almost all (96%, 50/52) of the papers had authors with tobacco industry ties. Seventy-six percent (38/50) of these papers drew conclusions positive for industry; none drew negative conclusions. The two papers by authors not related to the tobacco industry reached conclusions negative to the industry (p < .001). These results call into question the confidence that members of the scientific community and tobacco product regulators worldwide can have in the conclusions of papers published in RTP.

Concepts: Relationship, Tobacco, Nicotine, Regulation, Dipping tobacco, Integers, Tobacco industry, Tobacco products


With anti-retroviral treatment (ART) scale-up set to continue over the next few years it is of key importance that manufacturers and planners in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) hardest hit by the HIV/AIDS pandemic are able to anticipate and respond to future changes to treatment regimens, generics pipeline and demand, in order to secure continued access to all ARV medicines required. We did a forecast analysis, using secondary WHO and UNAIDS data sources, to estimate the number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) and the market share and demand for a range of new and existing ARV drugs in LMICs up to 2025. UNAIDS estimates 24.7 million person-years of ART in 2020 and 28.5 million person-years of ART in 2025 (24.3 million on first-line treatment, 3.5 million on second-line treatment, and 0.6 million on third-line treatment). Our analysis showed that TAF and DTG will be major players in the ART regimen by 2025, with 8 million and 15 million patients using these ARVs respectively. However, as safety and efficacy of dolutegravir (DTG) and tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) during pregnancy and among TB/HIV co-infected patients using rifampicin is still under debate, and ART scale-up is predicted to increase considerably, there also remains a clear need for continuous supplies of existing ARVs including TDF and EFV, which 16 million and 10 million patients-respectively-are predicted to be using in 2025. It will be important to ensure that the existing capacities of generics manufacturers, which are geared towards ARVs of higher doses (such as TDF 300mg and EFV 600mg), will not be adversely impacted due to the introduction of lower dose ARVs such as TAF 25mg and DTG 50mg. With increased access to viral load testing, more patients would be using protease inhibitors containing regimens in second-line, with 1 million patients on LPV/r and 2.3 million on ATV/r by 2025. However, it will remain important to continue monitoring the evolution of ARV market in LMICs to guarantee the availability of these medicines.

Concepts: Antiretroviral drug, HIV, AIDS, Viral load, Million, Future, Integers, 10000000


Twenty-three states and the District of Columbia have passed laws implementing medical marijuana programs. The nineteen programs that were in operation as of October 2014 collectively had over one million participants. All states (including D.C.) with medical marijuana laws require physicians directly or indirectly to authorize the use of marijuana at their discretion, yet little is known about how medical marijuana programs vary regarding adherence to basic principles of medical practice and associated rates of enrollment. To explore this, we analyzed marijuana programs according to seven components of traditional medical care and pharmaceutical regulation. We then examined enrollment rates, while controlling for potentially confounding state characteristics. We found that fourteen of the twenty-four programs were nonmedical and collectively enrolled 99.4 percent of participants nationwide, with enrollment rates twenty times greater than programs deemed to be “medicalized.” Policy makers implementing or amending medical marijuana programs should consider the powerful relationship between less regulation and greater enrollment. Researchers should consider variations across programs when assessing programs' population-level effects.

Concepts: Medicine, Law, Regulation, Cannabis, State, Administrative law, Integers, Legality of cannabis by country