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Concept: INFP


This study sought to determine whether using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) would detect differences in personality preferences in first-year dental students admitted to the same dental school through different admission methods. First-year dental students admitted in 2000 and 2001 were given the MBTI instrument during orientation prior to the start of classes. In fall 2000, the Class of 2004 had 140 students, with 116 in the traditional track and twenty-four in the parallel problem-based learning (PBL) track. In fall 2001, the Class of 2005 had 144 students, all enrolled in the PBL curriculum. All students admitted to the PBL track had experienced a process that included evaluation of their participation in a small group. Students in the traditional track had individual interviews with faculty members. Both student groups were required to meet the same baseline grade point average and Dental Admission Test standards. In 2000, the PBL students showed personality preferences that were distinctly different from the personality preferences of traditional track students in the categories of Extroversion (89 percent PBL, 44 percent traditional) and Thinking (72 percent PBL, 39 percent traditional). In 2001, the all-PBL class retained the trend towards Extroversion (69 percent). This study suggests that admission method may effectively change the personality preference distribution exhibited by the students who are admitted to dental school.

Concepts: Personality psychology, Psychometrics, Carl Jung, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, David Keirsey, INFP, INFJ


Myers-Briggs typology is widely seen as equivalent to and representative of Jungian theory by the users of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and similar questionnaires. However, the omission of the transcendent function from the theory, and the use of typological functions as its foundation, has resulted in an inadvertent reframing of the process of individuation. This is despite some attempts to integrate individuation and typology, and reintroduce the transcendent function into Myers-Briggs theory. This paper examines the differing views of individuation in Myers-Briggs and Jungian theory, and some of the challenges of reconciling those differences, particularly in the context of normality. It proposes eight principles, drawn mainly from Jungian and classical post-Jungian work, that show how individuation as a process can be integrated with contemporary Myers-Briggs typology. These principles show individuation as being a natural process that can be encouraged outside of the analytic process. They make use of a wide range of opposites as well as typological functions, whilst being centred on the transcendent function. Central to the process is the alchemical image of the caduceus and a practical interpretation of the axiom of Maria, both of which Jung used to illustrate the process of individuation.

Concepts: Personality psychology, Carl Jung, Socionics, Analytical psychology, Keirsey Temperament Sorter, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, Jungian psychology, INFP


Through assessment of 173 preterm infants and their mothers at hospital discharge and at 9, 16, 24, 36, and 72 months, the study examined early parenting, attachment security, effortful control, and children’s representations of family relationships in relation to subsequent externalizing behavior problems. Less intrusive early parenting predicted more secure attachment, better effortful control skills, and fewer early behavior problems, although it did not directly relate to the structural or content characteristics of children’s represented family relationships. Children with higher effortful control scores at 24 months had more coherent family representations at 36 months. Moreover, children who exhibited less avoidance in their family representations at 36 months had fewer mother-reported externalizing behavior problems at 72 months. The study suggests that early parenting quality and avoidance in children’s represented relationships are important for the development of externalizing behavior problems in children born preterm.

Concepts: Family, Psychometrics, Interpersonal relationship, Developmental psychology, Attachment theory, Preterm birth, Carl Jung, INFP