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Concept: Inflection


Many children with specific language impairment (SLI) have persisting problems in the correct use of verb tense, but there has been disagreement as to the underlying reason. When we take into account studies using receptive as well as expressive language tasks, the data suggest that the difficulty for children with SLI is in knowing when to inflect verbs for tense, rather than how to do so. This is perhaps not surprising when we consider that tense does not have a transparent semantic interpretation, but depends on complex relationships between inflections and hierarchically organized clauses. An explanation in terms of syntactic limitations contrasts with a popular morpho-phonological account, the Words and Rules model. This model, which attributes problems to difficulties with applying a rule to generate regular inflected forms, has been widely applied to adult-acquired disorders. There are striking similarities in the pattern of errors in adults with anterior aphasia and children with SLI, suggesting that impairments in appreciation of when to mark tense may apply to acquired as well as developmental disorders.

Concepts: Language, Word, Verb, Inflection, Romance languages, Grammatical mood, Grammatical aspect, Grammatical conjugation


Rapid dissemination of information regarding adverse drug reactions is a key aspect for improving pharmacovigilance. There is a possibility that unknown adverse drug reactions will become apparent through post-marketing administration. Currently, although there have been studies evaluating the relationships between a drug and adverse drug reactions using the JADER database which collects reported spontaneous adverse drug reactions, an efficient approach to assess the association between adverse drug reactions of drugs with the same indications as well as the influence of demographics (e.g. gender) has not been proposed.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Drug, The Association, Adverse drug reaction, Benzodiazepine, Pharmacovigilance, Inflection, Drug safety


PE lessons are the formal opportunity in schools for promotion of physical activity and fitness. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a pilot PE intervention on physical activity, fitness, and psychosocial outcomes.

Concepts: Exercise, England, English language, Inflection, Grammatical gender


In this study we investigate the effect of age of acquisition (AoA) on grammatical processing in second language learners as measured by event-related brain potentials (ERPs). We compare a traditional analysis involving the calculation of averages across a certain time window of the ERP waveform, analyzed with categorical groups (early vs. late), with a generalized additive modeling analysis, which allows us to take into account the full range of variability in both AoA and time. Sixty-six Slavic advanced learners of German listened to German sentences with correct and incorrect use of non-finite verbs and grammatical gender agreement. We show that the ERP signal depends on the AoA of the learner, as well as on the regularity of the structure under investigation. For gender agreement, a gradual change in processing strategies can be shown that varies by AoA, with younger learners showing a P600 and older learners showing a posterior negativity. For verb agreement, all learners show a P600 effect, irrespective of AoA. Based on their behavioral responses in an offline grammaticality judgment task, we argue that the late learners resort to computationally less efficient processing strategies when confronted with (lexically determined) syntactic constructions different from the L1. In addition, this study highlights the insights the explicit focus on the time course of the ERP signal in our analysis framework can offer compared to the traditional analysis.

Concepts: Grammar, English language, Event-related potential, Inflection, Syntax, Grammatical number, Grammatical conjugation, Grammatical gender


The aim of the present study was to provide normative data for the Croatian language using 346 visually presented objects (Cycowicz, Friedman, Rothstein, & Snodgrass Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 65:171-237, 1997; Roach, Schwartz, Martin, Grewal, & Brecher Clinical Aphasiology 24:121-133, 1996; Snodgrass & Vanderwart Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory 6:174-215, 1980). Picture naming was standardized according to seven variables: naming latency, name agreement, familiarity, visual complexity, word length, number of syllables, and word frequency. The descriptive statistics and correlation pattern of the variables collected in the present study were consistent with normative studies in other languages. These normative data for pictorial stimuli named by young healthy Croatian native speakers will be useful in studies of perception, language, and memory, as well as for preoperative and intraoperative mapping of speech and language brain areas.

Concepts: Psychology, Cognitive psychology, Cognition, Linguistics, Language, Learning, Inflection, Grammatical gender


Abstract This study investigates verbal morphology in Specific Language Impairment (SLI) in German, focusing on past participle inflection. Longitudinal data from 12 German-speaking children with SLI, six monolingual and six Turkish-German sequential bilingual children, were examined, plus an additional group of six typically developing Turkish-German sequential bilingual children. In a recent study (Rothweiler, M., Chilla, S., & H. Clahsen. (2012). Subject verb agreement in Specific Language Impairment: A study of monolingual and bilingual German-speaking children. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 15, 39-57), the same children with SLI were found to be severely impaired in reliably producing correct agreement-marked verb forms. By contrast, the new results reported in this study show that both the monolingual and the bilingual children with SLI produce participle inflection according to their language age. Our results strengthen the case of difficulties with agreement as a linguistic marker of SLI in German and show that it is possible to identify SLI from an early sequential bilingual child’s performance in one of her two languages.

Concepts: Language, Verb, Inflection, Grammatical number, Grammatical aspect, Grammatical gender, Participle, Gerund


To provide a systematic biophysical approach towards a better understanding of impact of conjugation chemistry on higher order structure and physical stability of an antibody drug conjugate (ADC).

Concepts: Molecular biology, Physics, Cysteine, Bacterial conjugation, Inflection, Symmetric group, Index of a subgroup


Spoken words carry linguistic and indexical information to listeners. Abstractionist models of spoken word recognition suggest that indexical information is stripped away in a process called normalization to allow processing of the linguistic message to proceed. In contrast, exemplar models of the lexicon suggest that indexical information is retained in memory, and influences the process of spoken word recognition. In the present study native Spanish listeners heard Spanish words that varied in grammatical gender (masculine, ending in -o, or feminine, ending in -a) produced by either a male or a female speaker. When asked to indicate the grammatical gender of the words, listeners were faster and more accurate when the sex of the speaker “matched” the grammatical gender than when the sex of the speaker and the grammatical gender “mismatched.” No such interference was observed when listeners heard the same stimuli, but identified whether the speaker was male or female. This finding suggests that indexical information, in this case the sex of the speaker, influences not just processes associated with word recognition, but also higher-level processes associated with grammatical processing. This result also raises questions regarding the widespread assumption about the cognitive independence and automatic nature of grammatical processes.

Concepts: Male, Gender, Sentence, Language, German language, Inflection, Morphology, Grammatical gender


Advances in nanotechnology have led to the fabrication of nano-constructs of organic or inorganic origins with well-defined structures, surface properties, and can be made to respond to physical or chemical stimuli. These nano-constructs can provide a shift in the way diagnostic and therapeutic drugs are delivered to achieve target specificity and increased retention of therapeutic doses for considerable improvement in the overall treatment of the tumors. In this case we describe here a synthetic approach to glycopolymer base nanoparticle gold(I) conjugate for cancer therapy.

Concepts: Cancer, Chemistry, Organic compound, Therapy, Nanotechnology, Latin, Inflection, Therapeutic index


WE INVESTIGATE THE COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURE OF A PARADIGMATIC EXAMPLE OF DISTRIBUTED SOCIAL INTERACTION: that of the open-source Wikipedia community. We examine the statistical properties of its cooperative behavior, and perform model selection to determine whether this aspect of the system can be described by a finite-state process, or whether reference to an effectively unbounded resource allows for a more parsimonious description. We find strong evidence, in a majority of the most-edited pages, in favor of a collective-state model, where the probability of a “revert” action declines as the square root of the number of non-revert actions seen since the last revert. We provide evidence that the emergence of this social counter is driven by collective interaction effects, rather than properties of individual users.

Concepts: United States, Interaction, Sociology, English-language films, Philosophy of science, Community, Inflection, Square root