Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Inferior nasal concha


Antrochoanal polyp is a benign polypoid lesion orginating from the maxillary sinus antrum and extending to the choana. Our aim was to assess the clinical presentation and associated rhinological findings of antrochoanal polyp patients and to evaluate results of 2 surgical treatments termed endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) and ESS plus mini-Caldwell operation. The study included 46 patients. Factors such as patient age, sex, history of chronic sinusitis, allergic rhinitis, septal deviations, chonca bullosa, turbinate hypertrophy, and the origin of the polyp were assessed. We also evaluated ESS and ESS plus mini-Caldwell surgical procedures for recurrences, synechia, bleeding, and ostium stenosis. Overall, there were 27 men and 19 women. The ESS approach was used in 26 cases, and 20 cases had combined ESS and mini-Caldwell procedures. The statistical significant difference between the 2 groups was only recurrence (P ≤ 0.05). In the ESS group, bleeding, synechia, and ostium stenosis were seen more than in the ESS + mini-Caldwell group, but there was no significant difference between the 2 groups in bleeding, synechia, and ostium stenosis (P > 0.05). We thought that lower rate of recurrence found in ESS + Caldwell group in this study was associated with better visualization of the maxillary sinus walls and, therefore, easier resection of the remnant polyp. We concluded that higher incidences of bleeding and synechia were related to the mucosal damage occurring in the septum and the inferior concha due to excessive manipulation of endoscope and surgical instruments.

Concepts: Surgery, Sinusitis, Allergy, Maxillary sinus, Rhinitis, Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery, Concha bullosa, Inferior nasal concha


Sinus floor elevation via the lateral window approach represents a reliable technique for bone augmentation in the atrophic posterior maxilla. It is known that sinus membrane elevation leads to new bone formation. This prospective clinical study compared a specific technique in sinus membrane elevation with a conventional sinus floor augmentation (xenogenous/autogenous bone) in a human split mouth model.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Human, Sinusitis, Human anatomy, Posterior superior alveolar artery, Maxillary sinus, Maxilla, Inferior nasal concha


The Sarcastic Fringehead (Neoclinus blanchardi, Teleostei) exhibits an extreme version of a common aggressive display, the “gaping display,” in which an open mouth is presented toward an opponent. Males of this species have extremely long jaws that extend posteriorly well past the posterior margin of the head and are flared laterally during the gaping display. In this study, we explored morphological traits related to this extraordinary display in this and related species of blennies. Morphological modifications include enlargement of the buccopalatal membrane, elongation of the maxilla via an uncalcified posterior extension, and evolution of a novel hinge between the anterior maxilla and lacrimal bones permitting lateral movement of the upper jaw. Geometric morphometry using the truss network system, thin-plate spline, and PCA of three closely related species of Neoclinus indicate that the elongate maxilla of N. blanchardi most likely evolved via acceleration (faster growth compared to outgroups) and hypermorphosis (continued growth to a larger body size), both forms of peramorphic heterochrony. Coloration and fluorescence of the buccopalatal membrane may also serve to amplify the extraordinary gaping display of the Sarcastic Fringehead.

Concepts: Evolution, Mouth, Jaw, Maxilla, Inferior nasal concha, Chaenopsidae, Sarcastic fringehead


Facial deformation as a sequela of leprosy is caused not only by a saddle nose but also by regression of the maxilla, as well documented in paleopathological observations of excavated skeletal remains of patients with leprosy. However, maxillary changes in living patients have been evaluated only by the subjective visual grading. Here, we attempted to evaluate maxillary bone deformation in patients with leprosy using three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT).

Concepts: Bone, Nasal cavity, Maxilla, Inferior nasal concha, Pterygopalatine fossa, Bones of the head and neck


The endoscopic endonasal prelacrimal recess approach to the maxillary sinus provides wide access to the walls and recesses of the maxillary sinus, and its use has been reported in many maxillary sinus and skull base diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the indication and feasibility of endoscopic sinus surgery using the prelacrimal recess approach in unilateral maxillary sinus diseases.

Concepts: Sinusitis, Maxillary sinus, Maxilla, Inferior nasal concha, Bones of the head and neck, Recess


This report describes a novel technique that allows for 3-dimensional augmentation of localized bone defects of the posterior maxilla and simultaneous implant placement by means of using the maxillary tuberosity as a block graft.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Dental implant, Maxilla, Inferior nasal concha, Pterygopalatine fossa


Although bisphosphonates (BPs) are known to be associated with osteonecrosis of the maxilla, the precise effects of BPs on bone metabolism in human maxillary sinus mucosal cells (HMSMCs) are not yet known. The purposes of this study were to examine the effects of the BPs zoledronate (ZOL) and alendronate (ALN) on osteoblastic and osteoclastic differentiation in HMSMCs and to investigate the signaling pathways involved.

Concepts: Osteoporosis, Stem cell, Bone marrow, Sinusitis, Maxillary sinus, Maxilla, Inferior nasal concha, Bones of the head and neck


Maxillary protrusion is one of the deformities of the upper jaw. Orthodontics and orthodontics combined with anterior segmental osteotomy are the common treatment strategies for this deformity. The hypothesis of this study was that the maxillary bone segment could be gradually moved backward safely by using a tooth-borne-specific compression device that causes bone compression at the bony segment interface after performance of surgical bone cuts in cases of anterior maxillary protrusion. Ten patients with skeletal maxillary protrusion were treated by modified subapical maxillary osteotomy. Then the protrusion was gradually set back and fixed in a new position through the use of a compression device. After 8 weeks, the device was removed, and soft and hard tissue was evaluated. The average setback of the anterior maxillary segment was found to be 6.8 mm. The ratio of the upper lip to the maxillary incisor retraction was 0.52:1. The nasolabial angle increased with a change of 13.5°. The mentolabial angle increased with a change of 12.5°. This study is the first clinical study in using compression osteogenesis aided by a modified anterior subapical maxillary osteotomy technique in the management of skeletal maxillary protrusion that considered as an alternative to traditional surgical methods and to avoid its complications. It can be used successfully and safely, leading to rapid maximum setback of the anterior maxillary segment with great contact between bone segment, better and gradual hard and soft tissue remodeling, short treatment duration, and avoid using plates and screws with its complications.

Concepts: Mouth, Tissues, Ratio, Intramembranous ossification, Jaw, Maxilla, Inferior nasal concha, Pterygopalatine fossa



The aim was to determine the survival rate of dental implants installed in the posterior region of the maxilla after a graftless maxillary sinus lift via the lateral window approach and to identify the factors involved in the results.

Concepts: Sinusitis, Implants, Dental implant, Maxillary sinus, Oral and maxillofacial surgery, Inferior nasal concha, Posterior superior alveolar nerve, Anterior superior alveolar nerve