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Concept: Inferior alveolar artery


Our aim was to explore the relation between the site of the mandibular canal and neurosensory impairment after extraction of impacted mandibular third molars. We organised a retrospective study of 537 extractions in 318 patients in which the affected tooth was intersected by the mandibular canal. This was verified by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), and we analysed the relation between the site of the canal and the likelihood of injury to the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) after extraction of the third molar. The relation between the position of the root of the tooth and the mandibular canal was categorised into 4 groups: I=root above the canal; II=on the buccal side; III=on the lingual side; and IV=between the roots. The overall rate of neurosensory impairment after extraction was 6% (33/537). It occurred in 9/272 patients (3%) in group 1, 16/86 (19%) in group II, and in 8/172 (5%) in group III. There was no neurosensory impairment in group IV where the canal was between the roots. There were significant differences between group II and groups I and III (p<0.01), but not between groups I and III (p=0.32). The risk of damage to the inferior alveolar nerve is increased if third molars intersect with the mandibular canal, particularly on its buccal side.

Concepts: Lingual nerve, Inferior alveolar artery, Mandibular third molar, Mandibular nerve, Molar, Inferior alveolar nerve, Mandibular canal, Teeth


The mandibular canal must be considered in dental procedures to avoid injuries of the alveolar inferior nerve. The occurrence of anatomical variations of the mandibular canal increases the risk of neurovascular injuries. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the prevalence of mandibular canal branching (MCB) using cone beam computer tomography (CBCT).

Concepts: Radiography, Radiology, Inferior alveolar artery, Inferior alveolar nerve, Tomographic reconstruction, Electron beam tomography, Medical imaging


The mandibular canal (MC) originates in the mandibular foramen and runs bilaterally through the mandibular ramus and body, ending in the mental foramen. One of the most common anatomical variations is bifid MC, the configurations of which have been classified into four categories and sub-categories. The prevalence of these variations depends on the imaging method used. Studies carried out in panoramic X-rays and Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) show prevalences varying between 1% and 20%. In this case report we present the finding of a bilateral bifid MC by CBCT examination; we describe its location and morphological characteristics. The variation found was a Type 1 bilateral bifid MC, which consists in an accessory canal originating from a single mandibular foramen and extending to the third molar or its immediate surroundings. In this report we discuss the importance of detecting these anatomical variations, as well as their implications in clinical practice.

Concepts: Ramus of the mandible, Mandibular canal, Radiography, Inferior alveolar artery, Radiology, Inferior alveolar nerve, Medical imaging, Foramina of the skull


To present a technique to rehabilitate atrophied alveolar ridges in the posterior maxilla and mandible using bone lateral to the maxillary sinus and to the inferior alveolar nerve and to present a retrospective study of the technique.

Concepts: Maxilla, Dental anatomy, Mandible, Inferior alveolar nerve, Bones of the head and neck, Inferior alveolar artery, Dental alveolus, Mandibular canal


Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) C342Y/+ mutation is a known cause of Crouzon syndrome that is characterised by craniosynostosis and midfacial hypoplasia. Our aim was to conduct extensive phenotyping of the maxillary, mandibular and dental morphology associated with this mutation.

Concepts: Crouzon syndrome, Receptor, Inferior alveolar artery, Oral and maxillofacial surgery, Growth factor receptor, Fibroblast growth factor, Growth factor, Immune system


Impacted and transmigrated mandibular canines differ greatly in incidence, etiopathology, associated anomalies, and treatment prospects, when compared to their maxillary counterparts. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed analysis of 3D radiographic imaging data of impacted mandibular canines.

Concepts: Discrete mathematics, Cranial nerves, Inferior alveolar artery, Mandibular nerve, Trigeminal nerve, Maxillary nerve


The aim of the present study was to assess risks prior to third molar removal. A 2-D panoramic radiograph or a 3-D cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan can be used to visualize the proximity of the third molar to the mandibular canal. We aimed to correlate panoramic indicators of risk with the incidence of contact between these two structures on CBCT scans.

Concepts: Risk assessment, Australia, Inferior alveolar artery, Teeth, Radiography, Medical imaging, Inferior alveolar nerve, Mandibular canal


This study aimed to investigate the difference in the location of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) in relation to the apices of mandibular molars in 3 different populations using cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) imaging and to assess the proportion of teeth in close proximity (a distance of 1 mm or less) to the IAN.

Concepts: Distance, Difference, Inferior alveolar artery, Inferior alveolar nerve, Mandibular canal


The aim of the study was to evaluate the proximity of the mandibular third molar (M3) and the inferior alveolar canal (IAC) in a panoramic radiograph of 20-year-old subjects. The specific aim was to assess differences in this proximity over time.

Concepts: Physical quantities, Mandibular third molar, Wisdom tooth, Distance, Teeth, Inferior alveolar artery, Mandibular canal


BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to analyze the factors that can increase the possibility of mandibular canal (MC) defect in Chinese people, to evaluate the risk of nerve impairment, and to choose the proper operative method to reduce the risk of mandibular alveolar nerve injury during the extraction of mandibular third molar (MTM). MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 954 patients (1,304 MTMs) who underwent orthopantomography (OPG) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) between July 2014 and December 2014 were included in this study. The age and gender of patients, impacted type (high impaction, moderate impaction, and low impaction), Winter classification of MTM, position of MTM relative to MC, vertical classification of MTM and MC, and the feature images of OPG were collected and compared to the imperfection of the MC wall in CBCT images. RESULTS The wall situation of MC was significantly correlated with the age of the patient, the depth of the molar, the position of the roots, and six imaging appearances on OPG. There was no significant difference based on gender. CONCLUSIONS Most incomplete walls of MCs could be inferred by OPG. However, images based on CBCT could clarify the defect of the MC and also could clearly display the spatial relationship between the root and inferior alveolar canal.

Concepts: Chinese people, Teeth, Patient, The Roots, Inferior alveolar artery, Inferior alveolar nerve, The Wall, Mandibular canal