Concept: Infant respiratory distress syndrome
Trauma is a major factor that contributes to the risk for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Biomarkers that predict the risk, diagnosis, treatment response and prognosis of ARDS after trauma have been widely investigated. In addition to their applications in clinical diagnosis and treatment, these biomarkers provide important insights into our understanding of the pathogenesis of ARDS. This review begins with a brief introduction regarding the incidence and pathogenesis of trauma-associated ARDS. Then, we focus on reviewing the clinical trials that have been designed to investigate the value of biomarkers in ARDS after trauma. Biomarkers with a confirmed value in ARDS have been organized on the basis of key pathogenic processes that are central to ARDS and are described in detail. Among these, angiopoietin 2 (Ang-2), L-selectin, Clara cell protein 16 (CC16), soluable receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE), Surfactant protein D (SP-D), histones, mtDNAs and some biomarker panels had a certain association with the diagnosis and prognosis of trauma-related ARDS. Further investigations are needed regarding the design of trials, the best sampling approaches and the optimal combinations of the biomarker panels.
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a common condition in intensive care unit patients and remains a major concern, with mortality rates of around 30-45% and considerable long-term morbidity. Respiratory support in these patients must be optimized to ensure adequate gas exchange while minimizing the risks of ventilator-induced lung injury. The aim of this expert opinion document is to review the available clinical evidence related to ventilator support and adjuvant therapies in order to provide evidence-based and experience-based clinical recommendations for the management of patients with ARDS.
This review summarizes the most recent clinical and experimental data on the impact of spontaneous breathing in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
Prone positioning has been used for many years in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The initial reason for prone positioning in ARDS patients was improvement in oxygenation. It was later shown that mechanical ventilation in the prone position can be less injurious to the lung and hence the primary reason to use prone positioning is prevention of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI).
It has been shown that the application of a lung-protective mechanical ventilation strategy can improve the prognosis of patients with acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, the optimal mechanical ventilation strategy for intensive care unit (ICU) patients without ALI or ARDS is uncertain. Therefore, we performed a network meta-analysis to identify the optimal mechanical ventilation strategy for these patients.
Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome is a restrictive lung disease characterized by surfactant deficiency. Decreased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which demonstrates important roles in angiogenesis and vasculogenesis, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of restrictive lung diseases. Current animal models investigating VEGF in the etiology and outcomes of RDS require premature delivery, hypoxia, anatomically or temporally limited inhibition, or other supplemental interventions. Consequently, little is known about the isolated effects of chronic VEGF inhibition, started at birth, on subsequent developing lung structure and function.
Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in premature infants. By the time symptoms appear it may already be too late to prevent a severe course, with bronchopulmonary dysplasia or mortality. We aimed to develop a rapid test of lung maturity for targeting surfactant supplementation.
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a neutrophil-dominant disorder with no effective pharmacological therapies. While the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor AT7519 induces neutrophil apoptosis to promote inflammation resolution in preclinical models of lung inflammation, its potential efficacy in ARDS has not been examined. Untreated peripheral blood sepsis-related ARDS neutrophils demonstrated prolonged survival after 20 hours in vitro culture. AT7519 was able to override this phenotype to induce apoptosis in ARDS neutrophils with reduced expression of the pro-survival protein Mcl-1. We demonstrate the first pharmacological compound to induce neutrophil apoptosis in sepsis-related ARDS, highlighting cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors as potential novel therapeutic agents.
Despite their potential interest for clinical management, measurements of respiratory mechanics in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are seldom performed in routine practice. We introduced a systematic assessment of respiratory mechanics in our clinical practice. After the first year of clinical use, we retrospectively assessed whether these measurements had any influence on clinical management and physiological parameters associated with clinical outcomes by comparing their value before and after performing the test.
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a life-saving therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients but is associated with complications and costs. Here, we validate various scores supposed to predict mortality and develop an optimized categorical model.