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Concept: Indoor Positioning System

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Indoor positioning systems based on the fingerprint method are widely used due to the large number of existing devices with a wide range of coverage. However, extensive positioning regions with a massive fingerprint database may cause high computational complexity and error margins, therefore clustering methods are widely applied as a solution. However, traditional clustering methods in positioning systems can only measure the similarity of the Received Signal Strength without being concerned with the continuity of physical coordinates. Besides, outage of access points could result in asymmetric matching problems which severely affect the fine positioning procedure. To solve these issues, in this paper we propose a positioning system based on the Spatial Division Clustering (SDC) method for clustering the fingerprint dataset subject to physical distance constraints. With the Genetic Algorithm and Support Vector Machine techniques, SDC can achieve higher coarse positioning accuracy than traditional clustering algorithms. In terms of fine localization, based on the Kernel Principal Component Analysis method, the proposed positioning system outperforms its counterparts based on other feature extraction methods in low dimensionality. Apart from balancing online matching computational burden, the new positioning system exhibits advantageous performance on radio map clustering, and also shows better robustness and adaptability in the asymmetric matching problem aspect.

Concepts: Indoor Positioning System, Dimension, Computational complexity theory, Principal component analysis, Algorithm, Machine learning

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The development of indoor positioning solutions using smartphones is a growing activity with an enormous potential for everyday life and professional applications. The research activities on this topic concentrate on the development of new positioning solutions that are tested in specific environments under their own evaluation metrics. To explore the real positioning quality of smartphone-based solutions and their capabilities for seamlessly adapting to different scenarios, it is needed to find fair evaluation frameworks. The design of competitions using extensive pre-recorded datasets is a valid way to generate open data for comparing the different solutions created by research teams. In this paper, we discuss the details of the 2017 IPIN indoor localization competition, the different datasets created, the teams participating in the event, and the results they obtained. We compare these results with other competition-based approaches (Microsoft and Perf-loc) and on-line evaluation web sites. The lessons learned by organising these competitions and the benefits for the community are addressed along the paper. Our analysis paves the way for future developments on the standardization of evaluations and for creating a widely-adopted benchmark strategy for researchers and companies in the field.

Concepts: Indoor Positioning System, Comparison, Competition, Evaluation, Research

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We describe a case report of an infant with intussusception who presented to a pediatric emergency department with diarrhea and increased irritability. Pneumatosis intestinalis (intra-mural air) detected on point-of-care ultrasonography (but not apparent on plain abdominal radiographs) alerted the emergency physicians towards the severity of disease process.

Concepts: Medical ultrasonography, Ultrasound Identification, Hospital, Indoor Positioning System, Medical imaging, Medicine, Pediatrics

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Terminal branches of the superficial fibular nerve are at risk of iatrogenic damage during foot surgery, including hallux valgus rigidus correction, bunionectomy, cheilectomy, and extensor hallucis longus tendon transfer. One terminal branch, the dorsomedial cutaneous nerve of the hallux, is particularly at risk of injury at its intersection with the extensor hallucis longus tendon. Iatrogenic injuries of the dorsomedial cutaneous nerve of the hallux can result in sensory loss, neuroma formation, and/or debilitating causalgia. Therefore, preoperative identification of the nerve is of great clinical importance. The present study used ultrasonography to identify the intersection between the dorsomedial cutaneous nerve of the hallux and the extensor hallucis longus tendon in cadavers. On ultrasound identification of the intersection, dissection was performed to assess the accuracy of the ultrasound screening. The method successfully pinpointed the nerve in 21 of 28 feet (75%). The sensitivity, positive likelihood ratio, and positive and negative predictive values of ultrasound identification of the junction of the dorsomedial cutaneous nerve and the extensor hallucis longus tendon were 75%, 75%, 100%, and 0%, respectively. We have described an ultrasound protocol that allows for the preoperative identification of the dorsomedial cutaneous nerve of the hallux as it crosses the extensor hallucis longus tendon. The technique could potentially be used to prevent the debilitating iatrogenic injuries known to occur in association with many common foot surgeries.

Concepts: Ultrasound Identification, Injury, Indoor Positioning System, Bunion, Negative predictive value, Surgery, Hallux, Foot

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In this study, we examined the consistency, rapidity, and reproducibility of the ABCDE technique for diaphragm identification. Operators using this method place the probe at the Anterior axillary line, watch for Breathing (lung sliding), and then move the probe Caudally to identify the Diaphragm for Examination.

Concepts: Indoor Positioning System

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This work proposes the use of a hybrid acoustic and optical indoor positioning system for the accurate 3D positioning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The acoustic module of this system is based on a Time-Code Division Multiple Access (T-CDMA) scheme, where the sequential emission of five spread spectrum ultrasonic codes is performed to compute the horizontal vehicle position following a 2D multilateration procedure. The optical module is based on a Time-Of-Flight (TOF) camera that provides an initial estimation for the vehicle height. A recursive algorithm programmed on an external computer is then proposed to refine the estimated position. Experimental results show that the proposed system can increase the accuracy of a solely acoustic system by 70-80% in terms of positioning mean square error.

Concepts: Indoor Positioning System, Scheme, Computer graphics, Code division multiple access, Book of Optics, Statistics, Ultrasound, Unmanned aerial vehicle

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Ventriculoperitoneal shunt malfunctions should be accurately and efficiently diagnosed. In this case series, we describe the use of point-of-care ultrasound to rapidly identify pediatric ventriculoperitoneal shunt tubing fracture, obstruction, and infection.

Concepts: Indoor Positioning System

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Indoor Positioning Systems (IPS) using Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) technology are currently becoming real and available, which has made them grow in popularity and use. However, there are still plenty of challenges related to this technology, especially in terms of Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) fluctuations due to the behaviour of the channels and the multipath effect, that lead to poor precision. In order to mitigate these effects, in this paper we propose and implement a real Indoor Positioning System based on Bluetooth Low Energy, that improves accuracy while reducing power consumption and costs. The three main proposals are: frequency diversity, Kalman filtering and a trilateration method what we have denominated “weighted trilateration”. The analysis of the results proves that all the proposals improve the precision of the system, which goes up to 1.82 m 90% of the time for a device moving in a middle-size room and 0.7 m for static devices. Furthermore, we have proved that the system is scalable and efficient in terms of cost and power consumption. The implemented approach allows using a very simple device (like a SensorTag) on the items to locate. The system enables a very low density of anchor points or references and with a precision better than existing solutions.

Concepts: Dynamic positioning, Improve, Wibree, Global Positioning System, Better, Bluetooth, Device, Indoor Positioning System

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We present a case of a child who presented with neck swelling and was ultimately diagnosed with lymphoma after an internal jugular vein thrombosis was discovered by point-of-care ultrasound. The use of point-of-care ultrasound enabled thrombus detection, which prompted further evaluation and treatment.

Concepts: Hematology, Indoor Positioning System, Neck, Veins of the head and neck, Common facial vein, Thrombosis, Internal jugular vein, Jugular vein

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This work presents an Indoor Positioning System to estimate the location of people navigating in complex indoor environments. The developed technique combines WiFi Positioning Systems and depth maps, delivering promising results in complex inhabited environments, consisting of various connected rooms, where people are freely moving. This is a non-intrusive system in which personal information about subjects is not needed and, although RGB-D cameras are installed in the sensing area, users are only required to carry their smart-phones. In this article, the methods developed to combine the above-mentioned technologies and the experiments performed to test the system are detailed. The obtained results show a significant improvement in terms of accuracy and performance with respect to previous WiFi-based solutions as well as an extension in the range of operation.

Concepts: Combine harvester, Indoor Positioning System, Performance, Improve, Mathematics, Wireless access point, Wi-Fi, Wireless network