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Concept: Indium(III) oxide


Here we report a low-cost synthetic approach for the direct fabrication of large-area Au nanourchin arrays on indium tin oxide (ITO) via a facile galvanic-cell-reaction-driven deposition in an aqueous solution of chloroauric acid and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP). The homogeneous Au nanourchins are composed of abundant sharp nanotips, which can served as nanoantennas and increase the local electromagnetic field enhancement dramatically. Finite element theoretical calculations confirm the strong electromagnetic field can be created around the sharp nanotips and located in the nanogaps between adjacent tips of the Au nanourchins. In addition, the interparticle nanogaps between the neighboring Au nanourchins may create additional hotspots, which can induce the higher electromagnetic field intensity. By using rhodamine 6G as a test molecule, the large-area Au nanourchin arrays on ITO exhibit active, uniform, and reproducible surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect. To trial their practical application, the Au nanourchin arrays are utilized as SERS substrates to detect 3,3’,4,4’-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB-77) one congener of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as a notorious class of persistent organic pollutants. The characteristic Raman peaks can be still identified when the concentration of PCB-77 is down to 5 × 10−6 M.

Concepts: Photon, Concentration, Chemistry, Indium tin oxide, Indium(III) oxide, Persistent organic pollutant, Polychlorinated biphenyl, Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins


Conjugated polymers, such as poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) (PEDOT), have emerged as promising materials for interfacing biomedical devices with tissue because of their relatively soft mechanical properties, versatile organic chemistry, and inherent ability to conduct both ions and electrons. However, their limited adhesion to substrates is a concern for in vivo applications. We report an electrografting method to create covalently bonded PEDOT on solid substrates. An amine-functionalized EDOT derivative (2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4-b][1,4]dioxin-2-yl)methanamine (EDOT-NH2), was synthesized and then electrografted onto conducting substrates including platinum, iridium, and indium tin oxide. The electrografting process was performed under slightly basic conditions with an overpotential of ~2 to 3 V. A nonconjugated, cross-linked, and well-adherent P(EDOT-NH2)-based polymer coating was obtained. We found that the P(EDOT-NH2) polymer coating did not block the charge transport through the interface. Subsequent PEDOT electrochemical deposition onto P(EDOT-NH2)-modified electrodes showed comparable electroactivity to pristine PEDOT coating. With P(EDOT-NH2) as an anchoring layer, PEDOT coating showed greatly enhanced adhesion. The modified coating could withstand extensive ultrasonication (1 hour) without significant cracking or delamination, whereas PEDOT typically delaminated after seconds of sonication. Therefore, this is an effective means to selectively modify microelectrodes with highly adherent and highly conductive polymer coatings as direct neural interfaces.

Concepts: Cathode, Electrochemistry, Chemistry, Plastic, Indium tin oxide, PEDOT:PSS, Indium(III) oxide, Indium


For the realization of high-efficiency flexible optoelectronic devices, transparent electrodes should be fabricated through a low-temperature process and have the crucial feature of low surface roughness. In this paper, we demonstrated a two-step spray-coating method for producing large-scale, smooth and flexible silver nanowire (AgNW)-poly3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) composite electrodes. Without the high-temperature annealing process, the conductivity of the composite film was improved via the lamination of highly conductive PEDOT:PSS modified by dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Under the room temperature process condition, we fabricated the AgNW-PEDOT:PSS composite film showing an 84.3% mean optical transmittance with a 10.76 Ω sq(-1) sheet resistance. The figure of merit Φ(TC) was higher than that obtained from the indium tin oxide (ITO) films. The sheet resistance of the composite film slightly increased less than 5.3% during 200 cycles of tensile and compression folding, displaying good electromechanical flexibility for use in flexible optoelectronic applications.

Concepts: Semiconductor, Solar cell, Indium tin oxide, PEDOT:PSS, Indium(III) oxide, Indium, Dimethyl sulfoxide, Transparent electrodes


We report the fabrication of a highly flexible indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode that is completely transparent to light in the visible spectrum. The electrode was fabricated via the formation of a novel ITO nanoarray structure, consisting of discrete globular ITO nanoparticles superimposed on an agglomerated ITO layer, on a heat-sensitive polymer substrate. The ITO nanoarray spontaneously assembled on the surface of the polymer substrate by a simple sputter coating at room temperature, without nanolithographic or solution-based assembly processes being required. The ITO nanoarray exhibited a resistivity of approximately 2.3 × 10(-3) Ω cm and a specular transmission of about 99% at 550 nm, surpassing all previously reported values of these parameters in the case of transparent porous ITO electrodes synthesized via solution-based processes at elevated temperatures. This novel nanoarray structure and its fabrication methodology can be used for coating large-area transparent electrodes on heat-sensitive polymer substrates, a goal unrealizable through currently available solution-based fabrication methods.

Concepts: Light, Solar cell, Indium tin oxide, Liquid crystal display, Indium(III) oxide, Indium, Transparent electrodes, Sputter deposition


Anionic hydrated titanate (HnTiOm: HTO) nanosheets and cationic magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxide (Mg-Al LDH) nanosheets were electrophoretically deposited on positively and negatively charged indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrates, respectively. The HTO nanosheets and Mg-Al LDH nanosheets obtained were identified in neutral water as H2Ti4O9•nH2O with a -potential of -23mV and Mg6Al2(OH)18•4.5H2O with a -potential of +41 mV, respectively. Dense and smooth HTO and Mg-Al LDH films with layered structures with thicknesses of about 10-15m were prepared in 300 s at 7.5 V by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) from the nanosheet suspensions. Both EPD HTO and LDH films showed elasticity because of their layered laminate structures. The HTO thick films demonstrated large adsorption properties and high photocatalytic activity, while the Mg-Al LDH thick films showed relatively high ionic conductivity of 10-5 Scm-1 at 80°C and 80% relative humidity.

Concepts: Indium tin oxide, Physical quantities, Humidity, Relative humidity, Indium(III) oxide, Indium, Psychrometrics, Dew point


In this study, a method which is environmentally sound, time and energy efficient has been used for recovery of indium from used liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. In this method, indium tin oxide (ITO) glass was crushed to micron size particles in seconds via high energy ball milling (HEBM). The parameters affecting the amount of dissolved indium such as milling time, particle size, effect time of acid solution, amount of HCl in the acid solution were tried to be optimized. The results show that by crushing ITO glass to micron size particles by HEBM, it is possible to extract higher amount of indium at room temperature than that by conventional methods using only conventional shredding machines. In this study, 86% of indium which exists in raw materials was recovered about in a very short time.

Concepts: Liquid, Indium tin oxide, Display resolution, Liquid crystal display, Indium(III) oxide, Indium, Liquid crystal, Display technology


Mechnosensational human-machine interfaces (HMIs) can greatly extend communication channels between human and external devices in a natural way. The mechnosensational HMIs based on biopotential signals have been developing slowly owing to the low signal-to-noise ratio and poor stability. In eye motions, the corneal-retinal potential caused by hyperpolarization and depolarization is very weak. However, the mechanical micromotion of the skin around the corners of eyes has never been considered as a good trigger signal source. We report a novel triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG)-based micromotion sensor enabled by the coupling of triboelectricity and electrostatic induction. By using an indium tin oxide electrode and two opposite tribomaterials, the proposed flexible and transparent sensor is capable of effectively capturing eye blink motion with a super-high signal level (~750 mV) compared with the traditional electrooculogram approach (~1 mV). The sensor is fixed on a pair of glasses and applied in two real-time mechnosensational HMIs-the smart home control system and the wireless hands-free typing system with advantages of super-high sensitivity, stability, easy operation, and low cost. This TENG-based micromotion sensor is distinct and unique in its fundamental mechanism, which provides a novel design concept for intelligent sensor technique and shows great potential application in mechnosensational HMIs.

Concepts: Electricity, Electrostatics, Indium tin oxide, Indium(III) oxide, Indium, Signal-to-noise ratio, Optical coating, Triboelectric effect


Recently, surrounding friendly electronic devices are attracting increasing interests. “Green” artificial synapses with learning abilities are also interesting for neuromorphic platforms. Here, solution processed chitosan-based polysaccharide electrolyte gated indium tin oxide (ITO) synaptic transistors are fabricated on PET substrate. Good transistor performances against mechanical stress are observed. Short-term synaptic plasticities are mimicked on the proposed ITO synaptic transistor. When applying pre-synaptic and post-synaptic spikes on gate electrode and drain electrode respectively, spiking timing dependent plasticity function is mimicked on the synaptic transistor. Transitions from sensory memory (SM) to short-term memory (STM) and from STM to long-term memory (LTM) are also mimicked, demonstrating a “multistore model” brain memory. Furthermore, the flexible ITO synaptic transistor can be dissolved in deionized water easily, indicating potential “green” neuromorphic platform applications.

Concepts: Vacuum tube, Water, Transistor, Indium tin oxide, Long-term potentiation, Diode, Indium(III) oxide, Electronics


The performance of an organic-semiconductor device is critically determined by the geometric alignment, orientation, and ordering of the organic molecules. While an organic multilayer eventually adopts the crystal structure of the organic material, the alignment and configuration at the interface with the substrate/electrode material is essential for charge injection into the organic layer. This work focuses on the prototypical organic semiconductor para-sexiphenyl (6P) adsorbed on In2O3(111), the thermodynamically most stable surface of the material that the most common transparent conducting oxide, indium tin oxide (ITO) is based on. The onset of nucleation and formation of the first monolayer are followed with atomically-resolved scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and non-contact atomic force microscopy (nc-AFM). Annealing to 200°C provides sufficient thermal energy for the molecules to orient themselves along the high-symmetry directions of the surface, leading to a single adsorption site. The AFM data suggests a twisted adsorption geometry. With increasing coverage, the 6P molecules first form a loose network with poor long-range order. Eventually the molecules re-orient and form an ordered monolayer. This first monolayer has a densely packed, well-ordered (2×1) structure with one 6P per In2O3(111) substrate unit cell, i.e., a molecular density of 5.64 × 1013cm-2.

Concepts: Electron, Chemistry, Adsorption, Materials science, Indium tin oxide, Scanning tunneling microscope, Indium(III) oxide, Scanning probe microscopy


Highly efficient cell capture and release with low background have been urgently required by early diagnosis of disease such as cancer. Herein, we report an electrochemical responsive superhydrophilic surface, exhibiting specific cell capture and release with high yields and extremely low nonspecific adhesion. Through electrochemical deposition, 3-substituted thiophene derivatives are deposited onto indium tin oxide (ITO) nanowire arrays with 4-n-Nonylbenzeneboronic acid (BA) as dopant, fabricating the electrochemical responsive superhydrophilic surfaces. The molecular recognition between sialic acids over-expressed on the cell membrane and doped BAs endows the electrochemical responsive surfaces with the ability to capture and release targeted cancer cells. By adjusting the substituent group of thiophene derivatives, the surface wettability can be readily regulated and further utilized for reducing nonspecific cell adhesion. Significantly, the released cells still maintain high proliferation ability, which indicates that the applied potential does less harm to cells. Therefore, it may provide a new strategy to achieve advanced function of biomedical materials such as low nonspecific adhesion.

Concepts: DNA, Protein, Cell membrane, Cell wall, Solar cell, Indium tin oxide, Indium(III) oxide, Indium