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Concept: Indium tin oxide


With particular focus on bulk heterojunction solar cells incorporating ZnO nanorods, we study how different annealing environments (air or Zn environment) and temperatures impact on the photoluminescence response. Our work gives new insight into the complex defect landscape in ZnO, and it also shows how the different defect types can be manipulated. We have determined the emission wavelengths for the two main defects which make up the visible band, the oxygen vacancy emission wavelength at approximately 530 nm and the zinc vacancy emission wavelength at approximately 630 nm. The precise nature of the defect landscape in the bulk of the nanorods is found to be unimportant to photovoltaic cell performance although the surface structure is more critical. Annealing of the nanorods is optimum at 300[degree sign]C as this is a sufficiently high temperature to decompose Zn(OH)2 formed at the surface of the nanorods during electrodeposition and sufficiently low to prevent ITO degradation.

Concepts: Light, Zinc, Solar cell, Photovoltaics, Indium tin oxide, Visible spectrum, Photovoltaic module, Band gap


We report an enhancement in the efficiency of organic solar cells via the incorporation of gold (Au) or silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) in the hole-transporting buffer layer of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), which was formed on an indium tin oxide (ITO) surface by the spin-coating of PEDOT:PSS-Au or Ag NPs composite solution. The composite solution was synthesized by a simple in situ preparation method which involved the reduction of chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) or silver nitrate (AgNO3) with sodium borohydride (NaBH4) solution in the presence of aqueous PEDOT:PSS media. The NPs were well dispersed in the PEDOT:PSS media and showed a characteristic absorption peak due to the surface plasmon resonance effect. Organic solar cells with the structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS-Au, Ag NPs/poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PC61BM)/LiF/Al exhibited an 8% improvement in their power conversion efficiency mainly due to the enlarged surface roughness of the PEDOT:PSS, which lead to an improvement in the charge collection and ultimately improvements in the short-circuit current density and fill factor.

Concepts: Gold, Lithium aluminium hydride, Solar cell, Indium tin oxide, Energy conversion, Silver, Surface plasmon resonance, PEDOT:PSS


Conductive metal films are patterned into transparent metal nanowire networks by using electrospun fibers as a mask. Both the transmittance and sheet resistance (6 Ω/□ at 83% transmittance and 24 Ω/□ at 92% transmittance) of the metal nanowires based electrode out-perform commercial indium doped tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. The metal nanowire based transparent electrodes were fabricated on both rigid glass and flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. In addition to state of art performance, the transparent electrodes also exhibit outstanding toughness. They can withstand repeated scotch tape peeling and various bending tests. The method for making the metal nanowire is scalable and a touch screen on flexible substrate is demonstrated.

Concepts: Aluminium, Metal, Copper, Solar cell, Indium tin oxide, Electrolyte, Electrolysis, Polyethylene terephthalate


Conjugated polymers, such as poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) (PEDOT), have emerged as promising materials for interfacing biomedical devices with tissue because of their relatively soft mechanical properties, versatile organic chemistry, and inherent ability to conduct both ions and electrons. However, their limited adhesion to substrates is a concern for in vivo applications. We report an electrografting method to create covalently bonded PEDOT on solid substrates. An amine-functionalized EDOT derivative (2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4-b][1,4]dioxin-2-yl)methanamine (EDOT-NH2), was synthesized and then electrografted onto conducting substrates including platinum, iridium, and indium tin oxide. The electrografting process was performed under slightly basic conditions with an overpotential of ~2 to 3 V. A nonconjugated, cross-linked, and well-adherent P(EDOT-NH2)-based polymer coating was obtained. We found that the P(EDOT-NH2) polymer coating did not block the charge transport through the interface. Subsequent PEDOT electrochemical deposition onto P(EDOT-NH2)-modified electrodes showed comparable electroactivity to pristine PEDOT coating. With P(EDOT-NH2) as an anchoring layer, PEDOT coating showed greatly enhanced adhesion. The modified coating could withstand extensive ultrasonication (1 hour) without significant cracking or delamination, whereas PEDOT typically delaminated after seconds of sonication. Therefore, this is an effective means to selectively modify microelectrodes with highly adherent and highly conductive polymer coatings as direct neural interfaces.

Concepts: Cathode, Electrochemistry, Chemistry, Plastic, Indium tin oxide, PEDOT:PSS, Indium(III) oxide, Indium


Zinc zirconate (ZnZrO(3)) (ZZ), zinc oxide (ZnO) (ZO) and zirconium oxide (ZrO(2)) (ZRO) nano-particles were synthesized by simple sol-gel method. ZZ, ZO and ZRO nano-particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS). Nanoporous ZZ, ZO and ZRO thin films were prepared doctor blade technique on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and used as working electrodes in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Their photovoltaic behavior were compared with standard using D35 dye and an electrolyte containing [Co(bpy)(3)](PF(6))(2), [Co(pby)(3)](PF(6))(3), LiClO(4), and 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP). The properties of DSSC have been studied by measuring their short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc), open-circuit voltage (VOC) and fill factor (ff). The application of ZnZrO(3) as working electrode produces a significant improvement in the fill factor (ff) of the dye-sensitized solar cells (ff=56%) compared to ZnO working electrode (ff=40%) under the same condition.

Concepts: Solar cell, Photovoltaics, Indium tin oxide, Titanium dioxide, Dye-sensitized solar cell, Thin film solar cell, Zinc oxide, Band gap


For the realization of high-efficiency flexible optoelectronic devices, transparent electrodes should be fabricated through a low-temperature process and have the crucial feature of low surface roughness. In this paper, we demonstrated a two-step spray-coating method for producing large-scale, smooth and flexible silver nanowire (AgNW)-poly3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) composite electrodes. Without the high-temperature annealing process, the conductivity of the composite film was improved via the lamination of highly conductive PEDOT:PSS modified by dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Under the room temperature process condition, we fabricated the AgNW-PEDOT:PSS composite film showing an 84.3% mean optical transmittance with a 10.76 Ω sq(-1) sheet resistance. The figure of merit Φ(TC) was higher than that obtained from the indium tin oxide (ITO) films. The sheet resistance of the composite film slightly increased less than 5.3% during 200 cycles of tensile and compression folding, displaying good electromechanical flexibility for use in flexible optoelectronic applications.

Concepts: Semiconductor, Solar cell, Indium tin oxide, PEDOT:PSS, Indium(III) oxide, Indium, Dimethyl sulfoxide, Transparent electrodes


We report the fabrication of a highly flexible indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode that is completely transparent to light in the visible spectrum. The electrode was fabricated via the formation of a novel ITO nanoarray structure, consisting of discrete globular ITO nanoparticles superimposed on an agglomerated ITO layer, on a heat-sensitive polymer substrate. The ITO nanoarray spontaneously assembled on the surface of the polymer substrate by a simple sputter coating at room temperature, without nanolithographic or solution-based assembly processes being required. The ITO nanoarray exhibited a resistivity of approximately 2.3 × 10(-3) Ω cm and a specular transmission of about 99% at 550 nm, surpassing all previously reported values of these parameters in the case of transparent porous ITO electrodes synthesized via solution-based processes at elevated temperatures. This novel nanoarray structure and its fabrication methodology can be used for coating large-area transparent electrodes on heat-sensitive polymer substrates, a goal unrealizable through currently available solution-based fabrication methods.

Concepts: Light, Solar cell, Indium tin oxide, Liquid crystal display, Indium(III) oxide, Indium, Transparent electrodes, Sputter deposition


Anionic hydrated titanate (HnTiOm: HTO) nanosheets and cationic magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxide (Mg-Al LDH) nanosheets were electrophoretically deposited on positively and negatively charged indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrates, respectively. The HTO nanosheets and Mg-Al LDH nanosheets obtained were identified in neutral water as H2Ti4O9•nH2O with a -potential of -23mV and Mg6Al2(OH)18•4.5H2O with a -potential of +41 mV, respectively. Dense and smooth HTO and Mg-Al LDH films with layered structures with thicknesses of about 10-15m were prepared in 300 s at 7.5 V by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) from the nanosheet suspensions. Both EPD HTO and LDH films showed elasticity because of their layered laminate structures. The HTO thick films demonstrated large adsorption properties and high photocatalytic activity, while the Mg-Al LDH thick films showed relatively high ionic conductivity of 10-5 Scm-1 at 80°C and 80% relative humidity.

Concepts: Indium tin oxide, Physical quantities, Humidity, Relative humidity, Indium(III) oxide, Indium, Psychrometrics, Dew point


In this study, a method which is environmentally sound, time and energy efficient has been used for recovery of indium from used liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. In this method, indium tin oxide (ITO) glass was crushed to micron size particles in seconds via high energy ball milling (HEBM). The parameters affecting the amount of dissolved indium such as milling time, particle size, effect time of acid solution, amount of HCl in the acid solution were tried to be optimized. The results show that by crushing ITO glass to micron size particles by HEBM, it is possible to extract higher amount of indium at room temperature than that by conventional methods using only conventional shredding machines. In this study, 86% of indium which exists in raw materials was recovered about in a very short time.

Concepts: Liquid, Indium tin oxide, Display resolution, Liquid crystal display, Indium(III) oxide, Indium, Liquid crystal, Display technology


The present study presents a new dielectrophoresis (DEP) manipulation technique using a movable liquid electrode, which allows manipulation of particles by actively controlling the locations of electrodes and applying on-off electric input signals. This DEP system consists of mercury as a movable liquid electrode, indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass, SU-8-based micro-channels for electrode passages, and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) medium chamber. A simple squeezing method was introduced to build a thin PDMS layer at the bottom of the medium chamber to create a contactless DEP system. To determine the operating conditions, the DEP force and the friction force were analytically compared for a single cell. In addition, an appropriate frequency range for effective DEP manipulation was chosen based on an estimation of the Clausius-Mossotti (CM) factor and the effective complex permittivity of the yeast cell using the concentric shell model. With this system, we demonstrated the active manipulation of yeast cells, and measured the collection efficiency and the dielectrophoretic velocity of cells for different AC electric field strengths and applied frequencies. The experimental results showed that the maximum collection efficiency reached was approximately 90%, and the dielectrophoretic velocity increased with increasing frequency and attained the maximum value of 10.85±0.95 μm/s at 100 kHz, above which it decreased. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Electromagnetism, Electrochemistry, Yeast, Indium tin oxide, Frequency, Indium, Copyright, Permittivity