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Concept: Impact assessment

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Indian Himalayan basins are earmarked for widespread dam building, but aggregate effects of these dams on terrestrial ecosystems are unknown. We mapped distribution of 292 dams (under construction and proposed) and projected effects of these dams on terrestrial ecosystems under different scenarios of land-cover loss. We analyzed land-cover data of the Himalayan valleys, where dams are located. We estimated dam density on fifth- through seventh-order rivers and compared these estimates with current global figures. We used a species-area relation model (SAR) to predict short- and long-term species extinctions driven by deforestation. We used scatter plots and correlation studies to analyze distribution patterns of species and dams and to reveal potential overlap between species-rich areas and dam sites. We investigated effects of disturbance on community structure of undisturbed forests. Nearly 90% of Indian Himalayan valleys would be affected by dam building and 27% of these dams would affect dense forests. Our model projected that 54,117 ha of forests would be submerged and 114,361 ha would be damaged by dam-related activities. A dam density of 0.3247/1000 km(2) would be nearly 62 times greater than current average global figures; the average of 1 dam for every 32 km of river channel would be 1.5 times higher than figures reported for U.S. rivers. Our results show that most dams would be located in species-rich areas of the Himalaya. The SAR model projected that by 2025, deforestation due to dam building would likely result in extinction of 22 angiosperm and 7 vertebrate taxa. Disturbance due to dam building would likely reduce tree species richness by 35%, tree density by 42%, and tree basal cover by 30% in dense forests. These results, combined with relatively weak national environmental impact assessment and implementation, point toward significant loss of species if all proposed dams in the Indian Himalaya are constructed. Efectos Potenciales del Desarrollo Hidroeléctrico Actual y Propuesto sobre la Diversidad Biológica Terrestre en el Himalaya Hindú

Concepts: Biodiversity, River, Extinction, Dam, Impact assessment, Hydroelectricity, Himalayas, Environmental impact assessment

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The persistence of chemicals is a key parameter for their environmental risk assessment. Extrapolating their biodegradability potential in aqueous systems to soil systems would improve the environmental impact assessment. This study compares the fate of (14/13)C-labelled 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and ibuprofen in OECD tests 301 (ready biodegradability in aqueous systems) and 307 (soil). 85% of 2,4-D and 68% of ibuprofen were mineralised in aqueous systems, indicating ready biodegradability, but only 57% and 45% in soil. Parent compounds and metabolites decreased to <2% of the spiked amounts in both systems. In soil, 36% of 2,4-D and 30% of ibuprofen were bound in non-extractable residues (NER). NER formation in the abiotic controls was half as high as in the biotic treatments. However, mineralisation, biodegradation and abiotic residue formation are competing processes. Assuming the same extent of abiotic NER formation in abiotic and biotic systems may therefore overestimate the abiotic contribution in the biotic systems. Mineralisation was described by a logistic model for the aquatic systems and by a two-pool first order degradation model for the soil systems. This agrees with the different abundance of microorganisms in the two systems, but precludes direct comparison of the fitted parameters. Nevertheless, the maximum mineralisable amounts determined by the models were similar in both systems, although the maximum mineralisation rate was about 3.5 times higher in the aqueous systems than in the soil system for both compounds; these parameters may thus be extrapolated from aqueous to soil systems. However, the maximum mineralisable amount is calculated by extrapolation to infinite times and includes intermediately formed biomass derived from the labelled carbon. The amount of labelled carbon within microbial biomass residues is higher in the soil system, resulting in lower degradation rates. Further evaluation of these relationships requires comparison data on more chemicals and from different soils.

Concepts: Evaluation, Soil, Environmental remediation, C, Bioremediation, Impact assessment, Extrapolation, Environmental impact assessment

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Life cycle assessment (LCA) was applied to hydrometallurgical treatments carried out using a new portable prototype plant for the recovery of valuable metals from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). The plant was fed with the WEEE residues from physical processes for the recycling of fluorescent lamps, cathode ray tubes (CRTs), Li-ion accumulators and printed circuit boards (PCBs). Leaching with sulfuric acid was carried out, followed by metal recovery by selective precipitation. A final step of wastewater treatment with lime was performed. The recovered metals included yttrium, zinc, cobalt, lithium, copper, gold and silver. The category of global warming potential was the most critical one considering the specifications for southern European territories, with 13.3 kg CO2/kg recovered metal from the powders/residues from fluorescent lamps, 19.2 kg CO2/kg from CRTs, 27.0 kg CO2/kg from Li-ion accumulators and 25.9 kg CO2/kg from PCBs. Data also show that metal extraction steps have the highest load for the environment. In general, these processes appear beneficial for the environment in terms of CO2 emissions, especially for metal recovery from WEEE residues from fluorescent lamps and CRTs.

Concepts: Carbon dioxide, Zinc, Copper, Impact assessment, Global warming, Electronic waste, Printed circuit board, Cathode ray tube

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Risk assessment (RA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) are two analytical tools used to support decision making in environmental management. This study reviewed 30 environmental assessment case studies that claimed an integration, combination, hybridization, or complementary use of RA and LCA. The focus of the analysis was on how the respective case studies evaluated emissions of chemical pollutants and pathogens. The analysis revealed three clusters of similar case studies. Yet, there seemed to be little consensus as to what should be referred to as RA and LCA, and when to speak of combination, integration, hybridization, or complementary use of RA and LCA. This paper provides clear recommendations toward a more stringent and consistent use of terminology. Blending elements of RA and LCA offers multifaceted opportunities to adapt a given environmental assessment case study to a specific decision making context, but also requires awareness of several implications and potential pitfalls, of which six are discussed in this paper. To facilitate a better understanding and more transparent communication of the nature of a given case study, this paper proposes a “design space” (i.e., identification framework) for environmental assessment case studies blending elements of RA and LCA. Thinking in terms of a common design space, we postulate, can increase clarity and transparency when communicating the design and results of a given assessment together with its potential strengths and weaknesses.

Concepts: Scientific method, Risk, Evaluation methods, Qualitative research, Case study, Impact assessment, Life cycle assessment, ISO 14000

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A new approach for quantifying the net environmental impact of a ‘community’ of interrelated products is demonstrated for consumer electronics owned by an average U.S. household over a 15-year period (1992-2007). This consumption-weighted life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology accounts for both product consumption (number of products per household) and impact (cumulative energy demand (MJ) per product), as analyzed using a hybrid LCA framework. While many individual devices have reduced impacts over time (on a ‘per product’ basis), increased usage, introduction of new technologies, and growing product consumption creates a net increase on a ‘per community’ basis. The net energy impact of the U.S. community of household electronics is significant, nearly 30% of the average annual fuel consumed by a passenger vehicle in 2007. The analysis points to a large contribution by legacy products (cathode ray tube televisions and desktop computers), due to historically high consumption rates, although impacts have begun to shift to smaller mobile devices. This method is also applied to evaluate prospective intervention strategies, indicating that environmental impact reduction can be achieved by strategies like lifespan extension or energy efficiency, but only when applied to all products owned, or by transforming consumption trends towards fewer, highly multi-functional products.

Concepts: Vacuum tube, Diode, Electronics, Impact assessment, Life cycle assessment, Electronic engineering, Cathode ray tube, Industrial ecology

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Assessing and managing the cumulative impacts of human activities on the environment remains a major challenge to sustainable development. This challenge is highlighted by the worldwide expansion of marine renewable energy developments (MREDs) in areas already subject to multiple activities and climate change. Cumulative effects assessments in theory provide decision makers with adequate information about how the environment will respond to the incremental effects of licensed activities and are a legal requirement in many nations. In practise, however, such assessments are beset by uncertainties resulting in substantial delays during the licensing process that reduce MRED investor confidence and limit progress towards meeting climate change targets. In light of these targets and ambitions to manage the marine environment sustainably, reducing the uncertainty surrounding MRED effects and cumulative effects assessment are timely and vital. This review investigates the origins and evolution of cumulative effects assessment to identify why the multitude of approaches and pertinent research have emerged, and discusses key considerations and challenges relevant to assessing the cumulative effects of MREDs and other activities on ecosystems. The review recommends a shift away from the current reliance on disparate environmental impact assessments and limited strategic environmental assessments, and a move towards establishing a common system of coordinated data and research relative to ecologically meaningful areas, focussed on the needs of decision makers tasked with protecting and conserving marine ecosystems and services.

Concepts: Biodiversity, Ecology, Natural environment, Sustainability, Impact assessment, Environmental impact assessment, Strategic Environmental Assessment, Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context

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The interest and activity in measuring and reporting the impact of publicly funded health and medical research has grown rapidly in recent years. Research evaluation typically relies on researchers for much of the information for an impact assessment. However, the acceptability and feasibility of this activity among health researchers is unknown. The aim of this study was to understand the role and opinions of cancer researchers in the growing area of impact evaluation activity, to inform the logistics of a sustainable program of impact evaluation.

Concepts: Evaluation, Evaluation methods, Academic publishing, Research, Impact assessment, Educational assessment and evaluation, Social research, Program evaluation

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Dust pollution is a complex problem of growing interest because of its environmental, health, economic and political impact. Environmental impact assessment methods for dust pollution management are often based on the simulation of dust dispersion, which requires a precise characterization of the source term and of the source parameters. The source term model should be as simple and as accurate as possible and requires low time consumption in order to be easily connected to a more complex algorithm for the dispersion calculations. This work focuses on dust emissions from mineral storage piles, which are usually modelled as source terms by means of the algorithm proposed in the AP-42 US EPA standard. Unfortunately, this algorithm tends to overestimate emissions, and when coupled with a Gaussian dispersion model, it leads to inaccurate results in terms of estimation of both concentration and spatial distribution. This paper proposes a new methodology drawn from the original standard US EPA AP-42 https://www3.epa.gov/ttnchie1/ap42/ch13/ scheme with the purpose to account for the actual dynamics of erosion and to enhance the accuracy of the concentration and the pollutant spatial distribution assessment, thereby considering the effects of the wind interactions. The standard EPA methodology and the new one were compared by means of the AERMOD and CALPUFF dispersion models. Results are superimposable in terms of concentration values, leading to a quantification of the same order of magnitude, although with a different and more variable spatial distribution.

Concepts: Mathematics, Accuracy and precision, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Air pollution, Impact assessment, Environmental impact assessment, Air dispersion modeling, Atmospheric dispersion modeling

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Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) are being increasingly included in Life Cycle Assessment studies (LCAs) since they have brought into evidence both human and ecological adverse effects due to their presence in different environmental compartments, wastewater facilities and industry. Therefore, the main goal of this research was to estimate the characterization factors (CFs) of 27 PPCPs widely used worldwide in order to incorporate their values into Life Cycle Impact Assessment studies (LCIA) or to generate a toxicity impact score ranking. Physicochemical properties, degradation rates, bioaccumulation, ecotoxicity and human health effects were collected from experimental data, recognized databases or estimated using EPI Suite™ and the USEtox™ software, and were subsequently used for estimating CFs. In addition, a Spanish toxicity impact score ranking was carried out for 49 PPCPs using the 27 newly calculated CFs, and 22 CFs already available in the literature, besides the data related to the occurrence of PPCPs in the environment in Spain. It has been highlighted that emissions into the continental freshwater compartment showed the highest CFs values for human effects (ranging from 10(-9) to 10(-3)Cases·kg(-1)), followed by emissions into the air (10(-9) to 10(-5)Cases·kg(-1)), soil (10(-11) to 10(5)Cases·kg(-1)) and seawater (10(-12) to 10(-4)Cases·kg(-1)). CFs regarding the affectation of freshwater aquatic environments were the highest of those proceeding from emissions into continental freshwater (between 1 to 10(4)PAF·m(3)·day·kgemission(-1)) due to the direct contact between the source of emission and the compartment affected, followed by soil (among 10(-1) to 10(4)PAF·m(3)·day·kgemission(-1)), and air (among 10(-2) to 10(4)PAF·m(3)·day·kgemission(-1)) while the lowest were the CFs of continental seawater (among 10(-28) to 10(-3)PAF·m(3)·day·kgemission(-1)). Freshwater aquatic ecotoxicological CFs are much higher than human toxicity CFs, demonstrating that the ecological impact of PPCPs in aquatic environments must be a matter of urgent attention. According to the Spanish toxicity impact score calculated, the PPCPs with the highest impact are hormones, antidepressants, fragrances, antibiotics, angiotensin receptor blockers and blood lipid regulators, which have already been found in other kinds of score rankings. These results, which were not available until now, will be useful in order to perform better LCIA studies, incorporating the micro-pollutants whose CFs have been estimated, or in order to carry out single hazard/risk environmental impact assessments.

Concepts: Natural environment, Angiotensin, Angiotensin II receptor antagonist, Estimation, Angiotensin receptor, Impact assessment, Life cycle assessment, Environmental impact assessment

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The bioethanol is playing an increasingly important role in renewable energy in China. Based on the theory of circular economy, integration of different resources by polygeneration is one of the solutions to improve energy efficiency and to reduce environmental impact. In this study, three modes of bioethanol production were selected to evaluate the life cycle energy efficiency and environmental impact of sweet potato-based bioethanol. The results showed that, the net energy ratio was greater than 1 and the value of net energy gain was positive in the three production modes, in which the maximum value appeared in the circular economy mode (CEM). The environment emission mainly occurred to bioethanol conversion unit in the conventional production mode (CPM) and the cogeneration mode (CGM), and eutrophication potential (EP) and global warming potential (GWP) were the most significant environmental impact category. While compared with CPM and CGM, the environmental impact of CEM significantly declined due to increasing recycling, and plant cultivation unit mainly contributed to EP and GWP. And the comprehensive evaluation score of environmental impact decreased by 73.46% and 23.36%. This study showed that CEM was effective in improving energy efficiency, especially in reducing the environmental impact, and it provides a new method for bioethanol production.

Concepts: Sustainability, Recycling, Renewable energy, Ethanol fuel, Impact assessment, Environmental impact assessment, Net energy gain, Energy economics