SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Immortality

211

Life stress resulting from early-life experiences and domestic stress is linked with shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL), but evidence on employment-related stress is scarce. We explored whether unemployment in early adulthood is associated with shorter LTL, a potential biomarker of premature aging.

Concepts: Death, Senescence, Biology, Cell division, Telomerase, Telomere, Immortality

182

Leucocyte telomere length (LTL) shortening is associated with cardiovascular ischemic events and mortality in humans, but data on its association with subclinical atherosclerosis are scarce. Whether the incidence and severity of subclinical atherosclerosis are associated with the abundance of critically short telomeres, a major trigger of cellular senescence, remains unknown.

Concepts: Death, Senescence, Cell division, Radical, Telomerase, Telomere, Maximum life span, Immortality

42

Psychological stress is suggested to accelerate the rate of biological aging. We investigated whether work-related exhaustion, an indicator of prolonged work stress, is associated with accelerated biological aging, as indicated by shorter leukocyte telomeres, that is, the DNA-protein complexes that cap chromosomal ends in cells.

Concepts: DNA, Gene, Senescence, Cell division, Telomerase, Telomere, Acceleration, Immortality

26

Food is medicine and vice versa. In Hindu and Ayurvedic medicine, and among human cultures of the Indian subcontinent in general, the perception of the food-medicine continuum is especially well established. The preparation of the exhilarating, gold-coloured Soma, Amrita or Ambrosia, the elixir and food of the ‘immortals’ - the Hindu pantheon -, by the ancient Indo-Aryans, is described in the Rigveda in poetic hymns. Different theories regarding the botanical identity of Soma circulate, but no pharmacologically and historically convincing theory exists to date.

Concepts: Indian subcontinent, Soma, Hinduism, Immortality, Vedas, Indra, Sanskrit words and phrases, Hindu mythology

15

Telomere extension has been proposed as a means to improve cell culture and tissue engineering and to treat disease. However, telomere extension by nonviral, nonintegrating methods remains inefficient. Here we report that delivery of modified mRNA encoding TERT to human fibroblasts and myoblasts increases telomerase activity transiently (24-48 h) and rapidly extends telomeres, after which telomeres resume shortening. Three successive transfections over a 4 d period extended telomeres up to 0.9 kb in a cell type-specific manner in fibroblasts and myoblasts and conferred an additional 28 ± 1.5 and 3.4 ± 0.4 population doublings (PD), respectively. Proliferative capacity increased in a dose-dependent manner. The second and third transfections had less effect on proliferative capacity than the first, revealing a refractory period. However, the refractory period was transient as a later fourth transfection increased fibroblast proliferative capacity by an additional 15.2 ± 1.1 PD, similar to the first transfection. Overall, these treatments led to an increase in absolute cell number of more than 10(12)-fold. Notably, unlike immortalized cells, all treated cell populations eventually stopped increasing in number and expressed senescence markers to the same extent as untreated cells. This rapid method of extending telomeres and increasing cell proliferative capacity without risk of insertional mutagenesis should have broad utility in disease modeling, drug screening, and regenerative medicine.-Ramunas, J., Yakubov, E., Brady, J. J., Corbel, S. Y., Holbrook, C., Brandt, M., Stein, J., Santiago, J. G., Cooke, J. P., Blau, H. M. Transient delivery of modified mRNA encoding TERT rapidly extends telomeres in human cells.

Concepts: DNA, Senescence, Cell division, DNA replication, Telomerase, Telomere, Transfection, Immortality

7

The potential to reverse aging has long been a tantalizing thought, but has equally been considered mere utopia. Recently, the spotlights have turned to senescent cells as being a culprit for aging. Can these cells be therapeutically eliminated? When so? And is this even safe? Recent developments in the tool box to study senescence have made it possible to begin addressing these questions. It will be especially relevant to identify how senescence impairs tissue rejuvenation and to prospectively design compounds that can both target senescence and stimulate rejuvenation in a safe manner. This review argues that to fulfill this niche, cell-penetrating peptides may provide promising therapeutics. As a candidate approach, the author also highlights the potential of targeting individual FOXO signaling pathways to combat senescence and stimulate tissue rejuventaion.

Concepts: Death, Senescence, Gerontology, Telomere, Ageing, Aging, Maximum life span, Immortality

4

Research into human development involves the use of human embryos and their derivative cells and tissues. How religions view the human embryo depends on beliefs about ensoulment and the inception of personhood, and science can neither prove nor refute the teaching of those religions that consider the zygote to be a human person with an immortal soul. This Spotlight article discusses some of the dominant themes that have emerged with regard to how different religions view the human embryo, with a focus on the Christian faith as well as Buddhist, Hindu, Jewish and Islamic perspectives.

Concepts: Embryo, Developmental biology, Religion, Buddhism, Christianity, Soul, Jainism, Immortality

1

Five studies tested the effects that soul beliefs have on reactions to end-of-the-world scenarios. In Studies 1 and 2, participants who firmly believe in an immortal soul showed less resistance to an article predicting the end of humanity than those without such belief. However, in Studies 3 to 5, thoughts of symbolic immortality made soul believers more resistant to scientific evidence predicting the end of humanity. These results suggest that belief in an immortal soul provides psychological protection against the threat of humanity’s demise that does not hold for symbolic immortality beliefs.

Concepts: Scientific method, Psychology, Critical thinking, Cognition, Philosophy of mind, Mind, Soul, Immortality

0

Telomeres are repetitive nucleoprotein structures at chromosome ends and a decrease in the number of these repeats, known as a reduction in telomere length (TL), triggers cellular senescence and apoptosis. Heart disease, the worldwide leading cause of death, often results from the loss of cardiac cells which could be explained by decreases in TL. Due to the cell-specific regulation of TL, this review focuses on studies that have measured telomeres in heart cells and critically assesses the relationship between cardiac TL and heart function. There are several lines of evidence that have identified rapid changes in cardiac TL during the onset and progression of heart disease as well as at critical stages of development. There are also many factors, such as the loss of telomeric proteins, oxidative stress, and hypoxia, that decrease cardiac TL and heart function. In contrast, antioxidants, calorie restriction, and exercise, can prevent both cardiac telomere attrition and the progression of heart disease. TL in the heart is also indicative of proliferative potential and could facilitate the identification of cells suitable for cardiac rejuvenation. Although these findings highlight the involvement of TL in heart function, there are important questions regarding the validity of animal models, as well as several confounding factors, which need to be considered when interpreting results and planning future research. With these in mind, elucidating the telomeric mechanisms involved in heart development and the transition to disease holds promise to prevent cardiac dysfunction and potentiate regeneration after injury.

Concepts: DNA, Death, Senescence, Cell division, Heart, Telomere, Free-radical theory, Immortality

0

Chronic inflammation associates with increased senescence, which is a strong predictor for cardiovascular disease. We hypothesised that inflammation accelerates senescence and thereby enhances the risk of cardiovascular disease in gout.

Concepts: Medicine, Disease, Senescence, Atherosclerosis, Blood vessel, Telomerase, Telomere, Immortality