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Concept: Imine


We report on how to quantify the binding affinity between a nanoparticle and chemical functional group using various experimental methods such as cantilever assay, PeakForce quantitative nanomechanical property mapping, and lateral force microscopy. For the immobilization of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) onto a microscale silicon substrate, we have considered two different chemical functional molecules of amine and catecholamine (dopamine was used here). It is revealed that catecholamine-modified surface is more effective for the functionalization of AuNPs onto the surface, which is compared with the amine-modified surface from our various experiments. The dimensionless parameter (i.e., ratio of binding affinity) introduced in this work from such experiments is useful in quantitatively depicting such binding affinity, indicating that the binding affinity and stability between AuNPs and catecholamine is approximately 1.5 times stronger than that of amine. Our study sheds light on the experiment-based quantitative characterization of the binding affinity between nanomaterial and chemical groups, which will eventually provide an insight into how to effectively design the functional material using chemical groups.

Concepts: Amine, Nanoparticle, Functional group, Nanotechnology, Gold, Alkene, Amide, Imine


Isatin is an important compound from the biological aspect of view. It is an endogenous substance and moreover; various pharmacological activities have been reported for isatin and its derivatives. In-vitro cytotoxic effects of the prepared isatin Schiff bases toward HeLa, LS180 and Raji human cancer cell lines has been reported in our previous work. 3-(2-(4-nitrophenyl)hydrazono) indolin-2-one was found to be the most potent one among the studied compounds (IC(30) = 12.2 and 21.8 μM in HeLa and LS-180 cell lines, respectively). Obtained biological data could be well interpreted using docking binding energies toward vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR-2); a key anticancer target being biologically investigated against various isatin derivatives. In the present work, quantum mechanical (QM) method including functional B3LYP in association with split valence basis set using polarization functions (Def2-SVP) was used to estimate individual ligand-residue interaction energies for the docked 3-(2-(4-nitrophenyl)hydrazono) indolin-2-one into VEGFR-2 active site. Results were further interpreted via calculated polarization effects induced by individual amino acids of the receptor active site. A fairly good correlation could be found between polarization effects and estimated binding energies (R(2) = 0.7227). Conformational analysis revealed that 3-(2-(4-nitrophenyl) hydrazono) indolin-2-one might not necessarily interact with the VEGFR-2 active site in its minimum energy conformation.

Concepts: Immune system, Cell, Energy, Cell biology, Chemical bond, Cell culture, Imine, Schiff base


The first catalytic asymmetric isatin-involved Povarov reaction has been established. This method provides an unprecedented approach to access the enantioenriched spiro[indolin-3,2'-quinoline] scaffold with concomitant creation of two quaternary stereogenic centers in high yields and excellent stereoselectivities (all >99:1 dr’s, up to 97% ee).

Concepts: Stereochemistry, Imine, Quinoline, Povarov reaction


We report here a two step efficient route for the synthesis of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline (THBC)-based tetracyclic peptidomimetics from a Ugi 4-CR/Pictet-Spengler reaction sequence. Suitably N-protected 2-aminoacetaldehyde was for the first time applied as the carbonyl component in a Ugi four-component reaction, opening the way to the employment of N-protected α-amino acid-derived aldehydes in the same role. The potential of the obtained scaffolds is related to the possibility of further derivatization with the desired pharmacophoric groups, on both the terminal acid and amine functional groups, for the development of conformationally constrained tryptophan-containing peptide ligands. Extensive molecular modeling and (1)H NMR studies highlighted a robust, folded, β-turn-like conformation for one of these peptidomimetic compounds.

Concepts: Alcohol, Amine, Functional group, Alkene, Carbonyl, Carboxylic acid, Amide, Imine


We developed a new conjugated cruciform flourophore (XF) featuring imine groups. The condensation of an XF containing aldehyde functionalities and selected primary amines leads to several XF- imine derivatives. Upon addition of Cu2+ or Zn2+ ions to solutions of the imine XFs in different solvents a red shifted emission is detected, resulting in an altering emission color. The imine here acts as a metallo-reactive fluorophor.

Concepts: Amino acid, Amine, Functional group, Alkene, Carbonyl, Amide, Imine, Alkylimino-de-oxo-bisubstitution


Two novel bpy-bridged Co(II) Schiff base complexes have been synthesized by the hydro(solvo)thermal reactions of corresponding amino-acid-based Schiff bases, bpy and Co(NO(3))(2)·6H(2)O. The following formulae identify the two complexes: {[Co(napala)(bpy)(0.5)]·H(2)O}(n) () and [Co(napgly)(bpy)(0.5)](n) () [H(2)napala = N-(2-hydroxy-1-naphthylmethylidene)-d/l-alanine, H(2)napgly = N-(2-hydroxy-1-naphthylmethylidene)-glycine and bpy = 4,4'-bipyridine]. These two compounds have been characterized using single-crystal X-ray diffraction, infrared, powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, optical spectra analysis, and magnetic measurement. Complex features an unprecedented threefold interpenetrated diamond network based on the fan-shaped Co(II)(4)(μ(2)-napala)(4) molecular square node and bpy linker, which represents the first example of 3D framework among the amino-acid-based Schiff base complexes with salicylaldehyde or its derivatives. In , adjacent Co(II) ions are bridged by μ(2)-napgly(2-) to form left- and right-handed [Co(II)(μ(2)-napgly)](n) helical chains. These two types of helical chains are sustained alternately by a symmetrical bpy co-ligand into a 2D grid-based layer. The solid-state fluorescence of complexes and are quenched almost completely compared with free mixed-ligands at room temperature. Moreover, magnetic studies show the dominant antiferromagnetic coupling between the Co(II) centers mediated by the syn-anti-COO(-)-bridges in both complexes.

Concepts: Electron, Diffraction, X-ray, Functional groups, Powder diffraction, Imine, Schiff base, Hugo Schiff


Palladium-catalyzed cyclization of imines has been developed to construct the extremely rare 3H-pyrrolo[2,3-c]quinoline ring system for diversity oriented first total synthesis of antimalarial marine natural product Aplidiopsamine A as well as synthesis of Marinoquinoline A and potential natural product hybrid NCLite-M1.

Concepts: Total synthesis, Paclitaxel total synthesis, Integer, Imine, Natural product, Paclitaxel, Multiplication, Natural products


Photochromic Schiff bases 5-diethylamino-2-[(4-diethylamino-benzylidene)-hydrazonomethyl]-phenol (DDBHP) and N,N'-bis(4-N,N-diethylaminosalisalidene) hydrazine (DEASH) with both the proton and charge transfer moieties have been synthesized, and their photophysical properties such as excited state intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) and proton transfer (ESIPT) processes have been reported on the basis of steady-state and time-resolved spectral measurement in various solvents. The ground-state six-membered intramolecular hydrogen bonding network at the proton transfer site accelerates the ESIPT process for these compounds. Both the compounds show large Stokes-shifted emission bands for proton transfer and charge transfer processes. The hydrogen bonding solvents play a crucial role in these photophysical processes. Excited-state dipole moment of DDBHP and DEASH calculated by the solvatochromic method supports the polar character of the charge transfer excited state. Introduction of -NEt(2) groups to the reported salicylaldehyde azine (SAA) Schiff base results an increase in fluorescence lifetime from femtosecond to picosecond time scale for the proton transfer process.

Concepts: Electron, Oxygen, Hydrogen, Atom, Hydrogen bond, Imine, Schiff base, Hugo Schiff


A new strategy is reported for the synthesis of 6-aminoquinoline derivatives via a tandem Povarov reaction, dihydroquinoline oxidation, and imine reduction. These products allow access to symmetrical as well as unsymmetrical tetraarylpyrido[2,3-g]quinolines, potentially useful organic electronics.

Concepts: Game theory, Hydrogen, Hydrogenation, Nitrogen, Carbon, Carbonyl, Imine, Povarov reaction


Expand and diversify your Ptfolio: N-Heterocyclic carbene-Pt-pyridine complexes have been used to generate an expanded and diversified set of trans NHC-Pt complexes with various amines, polyamines, hydroxylamines, or hydrazine as ligands. Attachment of a fluorophore moiety has also been successfully achieved.

Concepts: Amine, Ammonia, Nitrogen, Cyanide, Ligand, Amide, Amines, Imine