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Concept: Iliohypogastric nerve


A subcostal transversus abdominis plane (TAP) phenol injection was performed on a patient with refractory cancer pain due a metastatic involvement of the abdominal wall. A diagnostic block with local anesthetic was performed under ultrasound guidance (USG), resulting in a decrease of 80% and 100% in dynamic and static visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, respectively, for 20 hours. A phenol injection was then performed under USG. The patient reported 70% and 100% reduction in the dynamic and static VAS for pain and had a 50% decrease in the opioid requirement that was maintained for 2 months. TAP blocks offer an interesting tool for either diagnosis or therapeutic purpose in chronic pain management. USG provides an optimal approach to soft-tissue lesions where fluoroscopy techniques are not useful.

Concepts: Vitamin D, Anesthesia, Transversus abdominis muscle, Pain, Chronic pain, Ketamine, Local anesthetic, Iliohypogastric nerve


We performed bilateral transmuscular quadratus lumborum blocks in six cadavers using iodinated contrast and methylene blue. Computed tomography imaging was performed in four cadavers and anatomical dissection was completed in five. This demonstrated spread to the lumbar paravertebral space in 63% of specimens, laterally to the transversus abdominis muscle in 50% and caudally to the anterior superior iliac spine in 63% of specimens. There was no radiographic evidence of spread to the thoracic paravertebral space. Anatomical dissection revealed dye staining of the upper branches of the lumbar plexus and the psoas major muscle in 70% of specimens. Further clinical studies are required to confirm if the quadratus lumborum block might be a suitable alternative to lumbar plexus block.

Concepts: Biology, Transversus abdominis muscle, Anatomy, Iliac crest, Lumbar plexus, Dissection, Iliohypogastric nerve, Psoas major muscle


We compared the effect of subcostal transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block with liposomal bupivacaine to TAP block with non-liposomal bupivacaine on postoperative maximal pain scores in patients undergoing donor nephrectomy. Sixty patients were prospectively randomly assigned to receive ultrasound-guided bilateral TAPs with either 1.3% liposomal bupivacaine and normal saline or 0.25% non-liposomal bupivacaine with adrenaline. There was a significant decrease in maximal pain scores in the liposomal bupivacaine TAP group when compared with the non-liposomal bupivacaine group median (IQR [range]), 24-48 h after injection, 5 (3.0-5.2 [0-10]) vs. 6 (4.5-7.0 [1–9]) p = 0.009; 48-72 h after injection, 3 (2.0-5.0 [0-8]) vs. 5 (3.0-7.0 [0-10]) p = 0.02; and in opioid use 48-72 h after injection, mean (SD) μg equivalents of fentanyl 105 (97) vs. 182 (162) p = 0.03. Liposomal bupivacaine via subcostal TAP infiltration provided superior analgesia up to 72 h after injection when compared with non-liposomal bupivacaine.

Concepts: Median, Transversus abdominis muscle, Opioid, Pain, Morphine, Heroin, Pain management, Iliohypogastric nerve


The analgesic effect and duration of a transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block remain controversial. Transversus abdominis plane blocks are effective for somatic/incisional pain but do not provide analgesia for visceral pain from intra-abdominal procedures. The purpose of this study was to assess the area and extent of cutaneous sensory blockade and the regression of dermatomal anesthesia after bilateral oblique subcostal TAP block.

Concepts: Transversus abdominis muscle, Opioid, Pain, Iliohypogastric nerve


After laparoscopic cholecystectomy, patients have moderate pain in the early postoperative period. Some studies shown beneficial effects of subcostal transversus abdominis plane block on reducing this pain. Our goal was to investigate influence of subcostal transversus abdominis plane block on postoperative pain scores and opioid consumption.

Concepts: Transversus abdominis muscle, Opioid, Pain, Laparoscopic surgery, Cholecystectomy, Iliohypogastric nerve, Transversus abdominis


Abdominal muscles are one of the important elements to support the lumbar spine. Evaluation of muscle thickness using ultrasonography (US) is considered to be a source of information from muscles characteristics. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate normal reference data of abdominal muscles thickness and subcutaneous fat in adolescents using US. A random sample of 160 healthy adolescents (80 boys and 80 girls) at the age range of 15-18 years was recruited. Three abdominal muscles including Transversus Abdominis (TA), Internal Oblique (IO), External Oblique (EO) and subcutaneous fat (SF) were bilaterally measured using US. The range of normal values for TA muscle thickness was between 2.31 and 2.57 mm, for IO muscle thickness was between 4.02 and 5.15 mm and for EO muscle thickness was between 2.81 and 3.17 mm. The normal patterns of abdominal muscles were found as IO > EO > TA at both sides. Boys were taller, heavier with greater body mass index (BMI) and had larger abdominal muscles thickness than girls. A weak negative correlation was found between age and muscles size [r = (-0.06) - (-0.23), p < .05], but a significant positive correlation was found between BMI and muscle size (r = 0.21-0.68, p < .05). It seems that abdominal muscles thickness in adolescents followed the same pattern of muscle size in adults. BMI appeared to be the best predictor of muscle thickness. However, further studies are recommended to support the findings of the present study.

Concepts: Muscle, Body mass index, Transversus abdominis muscle, Abdomen, Iliac crest, Abdominal external oblique muscle, Muscles of the torso, Iliohypogastric nerve


To investigate the analgesic effect of a subcostal-posterior transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block combination following laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. Methods: This study was conducted at Fatih Sultan Mehmet Educational and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, between March 2014 and June 2015. A total of 40 patients with a body mass index of 40-60 kg/m2 scheduled for laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy were randomly allocated into 2 groups. Patients in Group I (n=20) received a bilateral subcostal TAP block, and patients in Group II (n=20) received a bilateral subcostal and posterior TAP block. Pain intensity was assessed at rest and during coughing using the visual analog scale (VAS) prior to and at various time points after TAP block (0 min, 30 min, 2 hours, 4 hours, 6 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours). Morphine consumption over 24 hours and time to first morphine requirement were recorded.  Results: There was no difference in VAS scores between groups. Morphine consumption was 6.78±5.95 mg in Group I, and 7.28±5.95 mg in Group II (p=0.795). Time to first morphine requirement was 267.22±303.84 min for Group I, and 207.80±209.81 min for Group II (p=0.154).  Conclusions: Subcostal-posterior TAP block provided equivalent analgesia to subcostal TAP block alone following laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.

Concepts: Obesity, Body mass index, Transversus abdominis muscle, Opioid, Codeine, Iliohypogastric nerve, Mehmed II, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge


The abdominal draw-in maneuver (ADIM) is a method commonly used to reestablish neuromuscular control of the deep spine muscles among individuals with musculoskeletal problems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of ADIM combined with simulated weight-bearing (SWB) activities in the facilitation of the deep spine muscles. The subjects were 30 young healthy individuals. Ultrasound images were used to measure the relative changes in transverse abdominal (TrA), internal oblique (IO) and external oblique (EO) muscle thickness during a simulated weight-bearing ADIM (SWB-ADIM). A paired t-test was used to determine the differences between the ADIM and SWB-ADIM conditions. The results showed that the thickness of the TrA and IO muscles in the SWB-ADIM condition was significantly higher than in the ADIM-alone condition. Our findings suggest that SWB-ADIM is more effective than ADIM alone for improving the deep spine muscles in real-life situations.

Concepts: Transversus abdominis muscle, Neuromuscular disease, Iliac crest, Abdominal external oblique muscle, Muscles of the torso, Iliohypogastric nerve, Transversus abdominis, Vacuum exercise


Interventional procedures can be applied for diagnostic evaluation and treatment of the patient with pelvic pain, often once more conservative measures have failed to provide relief. This article reviews interventional management strategies for pelvic pain. We review superior and inferior hypogastric plexus blocks, ganglion impar blocks, transversus abdominis plane blocks, ilioinguinal, iliohypogastric and genitofemoral blocks, pudendal nerve blocks, and selective nerve root blocks. Additionally, we discuss trigger point injections, sacroiliac joint injections, and neuromodulation approaches.

Concepts: Nervous system, Joint, Transversus abdominis muscle, Pelvis, Sacroiliac joint, Lumbar plexus, Trigger point, Iliohypogastric nerve


Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) is a fascial plane containing the thoracolumbar nerve branches that innervate the abdominal wall. Limited information is available on the anatomical organization of these nerve branches in the dog, which is of great importance for the success of the TAP block anaesthetic technique. The aim of this study was to describe the origin and conformation of thoracolumbar nerves running through the TAP in 20 hemi-abdominal walls of 10 adult mongrel dog cadavers with an average body weight of 12.6 kg (range: 9.6-15.6). The abdominal walls were dissected from superficial to deep direction, the skin and both obliquus externus abdominis and obliquus internus abdominis muscles were dissected and reflected dorsally to expose the transversus abdominis muscle and the thoracolumbar nerve branches located in this plane. The anatomical features of ventral nerve branches were described. The thoracic nerve branches: T7-T12 and costoabdominalis; and the lumbar nerve branches: iliohypogastricus cranialis, iliohypogastricus caudalis, ilioinguinalis and cutaneus femoris lateralis were identified in all the cadavers. Anatomical variations related to the presence or absence within the TAP of the T7, T8 and T9 nerve branches were found. These variations should be taken into account when planning the TAP block technique in dogs.

Concepts: Nervous system, Muscle, Transversus abdominis muscle, Abdomen, Nerve, Iliac crest, Muscles of the torso, Iliohypogastric nerve