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Concept: Hysterectomy

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 To conduct a nationwide study of associations between removal of all ovarian tissue versus conservation of at least one ovary at the time of hysterectomy and important health outcomes (ischaemic heart disease, cancer, and all cause mortality).

Concepts: Menopause, Hysterectomy, Ovary

171

Late rupture of external iliac artery pseudo-aneurysm is an uncommon complication in patients who undergo extensive gynecologic radical surgeries. A 28-year-old woman with stage IB cervical cancer underwent pelvic lymphadenectomy and extrafascial trachelectomy. Two months after surgery, massive bleeding from ruptured pseudo-aneurysm of the external iliac artery occurred. Endovascular management with covered stent placement was feasible and safe to stop bleeding.

Concepts: Cervical cancer, Surgery, Radiation therapy, Stent, Pelvis, Hysterectomy, External iliac artery, Internal iliac artery

168

INTRODUCTION: Detection of asymptomatic adnexal tumours in postmenopausal women has increased due to wider use of diagnostic ultrasound and imaging quality improvements. Reliable methods to differentiate between benign and malignant tumours are required to avoid delays in treating ovarian cancer and to prevent unnecessary interventions for benign lesions. In the UK, the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists has issued guidance for the management of adnexal cysts in postmenopausal women, which is considered standard in routine clinical practice. The protocol utilises the Risk of Malignancy Index to assess the risk of adnexal lesion being malignant. This protocol has a relatively high intervention rate in order to avoid a delay in a cancer diagnosis. The Simple Rules Protocol designed by International Ovarian Tumour Analysis Group reports a low false-positive rate in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer without a loss of sensitivity and therefore has the potential to reduce unnecessary interventions in asymptomatic postmenopausal women with benign cysts. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: 140 postmenopausal women aged 40-80, with incidentally detected adnexal tumours on ultrasound scan will be recruited to this study. They will be randomly allocated, to be assessed and managed according to either of the two protocols under investigation. In both arms of the study the tumours will be classified into three groups: high, intermediate or low risk of malignancy. Women with high risk of malignancy will be referred for management in a tertiary cancer centre, women with low-risk tumours will be managed expectantly, while those with intermediate risk findings have surgery in their local hospital units. Analysis will be on an intention-to-treat basis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Research ethical approval was granted by the North London Research Ethical Committee 2 (10/H0724/48). Trial results will be published according to the CONSORT statement. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Registration at http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN89034131/. ISRCTN89034131.

Concepts: Cancer, Oncology, Sensitivity and specificity, Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, Benign tumor, Ovarian cyst, BRCA2, Hysterectomy

152

Objective To study the strength and validity of associations between adiposity and risk of any type of obstetric or gynaecological conditions.Design An umbrella review of meta-analyses.Data sources PubMed, Cochrane database of systematic reviews, manual screening of references for systematic reviews or meta-analyses of observational and interventional studies evaluating the association between adiposity and risk of any obstetrical or gynaecological outcome.Main outcomes Meta-analyses of cohort studies on associations between indices of adiposity and obstetric and gynaecological outcomes.Data synthesis Evidence from observational studies was graded into strong, highly suggestive, suggestive, or weak based on the significance of the random effects summary estimate and the largest study in the included meta-analysis, the number of cases, heterogeneity between studies, 95% prediction intervals, small study effects, excess significance bias, and sensitivity analysis with credibility ceilings. Interventional meta-analyses were assessed separately.Results 156 meta-analyses of observational studies were included, investigating associations between adiposity and risk of 84 obstetric or gynaecological outcomes. Of the 144 meta-analyses that included cohort studies, only 11 (8%) had strong evidence for eight outcomes: adiposity was associated with a higher risk of endometrial cancer, ovarian cancer, antenatal depression, total and emergency caesarean section, pre-eclampsia, fetal macrosomia, and low Apgar score. The summary effect estimates ranged from 1.21 (95% confidence interval 1.13 to 1.29) for an association between a 0.1 unit increase in waist to hip ratio and risk endometrial cancer up to 4.14 (3.61 to 4.75) for risk of pre-eclampsia for BMI >35 compared with <25. Only three out of these eight outcomes were also assessed in meta-analyses of trials evaluating weight loss interventions. These interventions significantly reduced the risk of caesarean section and pre-eclampsia, whereas there was no evidence of association with fetal macrosomia.Conclusions Although the associations between adiposity and obstetric and gynaecological outcomes have been extensively studied, only a minority were considered strong and without hints of bias.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Childbirth, Systematic review, Obstetrics, Hysterectomy, Caesarean section, Pre-eclampsia

140

Purpose To determine the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of abdominal wall endometriosis (AWE), as well as the rate and recurrence factors for the disease. Methods A retrospective study of 52 women with AWE was performed at Universidade Estadual de Campinas from 2004 to 2014. Of the 231 surgeries performed for the diagnosis of endometriosis, 52 women were found to have abdominal wall endometriosis (AWE). The frequencies, means and standard deviations of the clinical characteristics of these women were calculated, as well as the recurrence rate of AWE. To determine the risk factors for disease recurrence, Fisher’s exact test was used. Results The mean age of the patients was 30.71 ± 5.91 years. The main clinical manifestations were pain (98%) and sensation of a mass (36.5%). We observed that 94% of these women had undergone at least 1 cesarean section, and 73% had used medication for the postoperative control of endometriosis. The lesion was most commonly located in the cesarean section scar (65%). The recurrence rate of the disease was of 26.9%. All 14 women who had relapsed had surgical margins compromised in the previous surgery. There was no correlation between recurrent AWE and a previous cesarean section (p = 0.18), previous laparotomy (p = 0.11), previous laparoscopy (p = 0.12) and postoperative hormone therapy (p = 0.51). Conclusion Women with previous cesarean sections with local pain or lumps should be investigated for AWE. The recurrence of AWE is high, especially when the first surgery is not appropriate and leaves compromised surgical margins.

Concepts: Childbirth, Epidemiology, Surgery, Anesthesia, Arithmetic mean, Hysterectomy, Fisher's exact test, Universidade Estadual de Campinas

129

Half the epidemiological studies with information about menopausal hormone therapy and ovarian cancer risk remain unpublished, and some retrospective studies could have been biased by selective participation or recall. We aimed to assess with minimal bias the effects of hormone therapy on ovarian cancer risk.

Concepts: Hormone replacement therapy, Epidemiology, Hormone, Menopause, BRCA2, Hysterectomy

112

Placenta accreta (an abnormally adherent placenta) is one of the two leading causes of peripartum hemorrhage and the most common indication for peripartum hysterectomy. Placenta accreta may be associated with significant maternal hemorrhage at delivery owing to the incomplete placental separation. When placenta accreta is diagnosed before delivery, a multidisciplinary approach may improve patient outcome.

Concepts: Childbirth, Obstetrics, Hysterectomy, Placenta, Trophoblast, Caesarean section, Placenta accreta, Placenta praevia

89

The call for women-centred approaches to reduce labour interventions, particularly primary caesarean section, has renewed interest in a better understanding of natural labour progression.

Concepts: Childbirth, Obstetrics, Hysterectomy, Epidural, Caesarean section, Breech birth, Ventouse, Fetal distress

50

The objectives of this study were to determine the age-standardized and age-specific annual US cervical cancer mortality rates after correction for the prevalence of hysterectomy and to evaluate disparities by age and race.

Concepts: Human papillomavirus, Cervical cancer, United States, Hysterectomy, Race, European American, Nationalism, Indigenous peoples of the Americas

28

We report a case of a 35-year-old woman who underwent uterine artery embolization (UAE) for symptomatic multiple uterine fibroids with collateral aberrant right ovarian artery that originated from the right external iliac artery. We believe that this is the first reported case in the literature of this collateral uterine flow by the right ovarian artery originated from the right external iliac artery. We briefly present the details of the case and review the literature on variations of ovarian artery origin that might be encountered during UAE.

Concepts: Uterus, Hysterectomy, External iliac artery, Internal iliac artery, Uterine fibroids, Uterine artery embolization, Uterine artery, Ovarian artery