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Concept: Hypodermic needle


“Approximately 2 months ago, I had a patient where I accidently administered a wrong dose of fentanyl during a procedure. The patient developed severe hypotension, and the procedure had to be temporarily halted until we could get her blood pressure back up. My attending was close by. He responded quickly. Ultimately, no harm was done. "The reason I believe this happened is that during a procedure I’m sometimes required to administer fentanyl and must dilute it during the procedure. There are two dilutions, either to directly administer by syringe, or for use as an intravenous drip. We do this dilution . . .

Concepts: Patient, Intravenous therapy, Orthostatic hypotension, Hypotension, Hypodermic needle, Dilution, 2004 singles


Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

Concepts: Brain, Minimally invasive, Hypodermic needle, Electronic engineering


We report a unique case of diabetic ketoacidosis in which a relatively low potassium level on admission was associated with consequent life-threatening and refractory arrhythmia secondary to inappropriate use of intravenous insulin and bicarbonate therapy. The latter was reversed by rapid bolus potassium injection. Although we do not advocate this approach in every case, we emphasise that a bolus injection of potassium may be life saving in such cases. The lessons from this case have led to multidisciplinary meetings and modification of the institute’s diabetic ketoacidosis clinical pathway.

Concepts: Diabetes mellitus, Diabetes mellitus type 1, Medical emergencies, Cardiac arrest, Hypodermic needle, Ketoacidosis, Diabetic ketoacidosis, Hypokalemia


OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of device-assisted ultrasound-guided steroid injection for treating plantar fasciitis. DESIGN: An ultrasound-guided injection device designed with space for securing a transducer and syringe was used to guide steroid injection. Patients with unilateral plantar fasciitis were enrolled and randomly divided into device-assisted ultrasound-guided and palpation-guided groups. Pain intensity was measured using a visual analog scale and tenderness threshold. Ultrasound and pain intensity evaluations were performed before injection and at 3 wks and at 3 mos postinjection. Betamethasone (7 mg) and 1% lidocaine (0.5 ml) were injected into the inflamed plantar fascia. RESULTS: Thirty-three patients who received either device-assisted ultrasound-guided or palpation-guided injection had significantly lower visual analog scale scores (P < 0.001) and higher tenderness threshold (P < 0.01) postinjection. However, the device-assisted group had higher tenderness threshold (9.02 ± 1.38 vs. 7.18 ± 2.11 kg/cm; P = 0.007), lower visual analog scale score (1.88 ± 2.13 vs. 3.63 ± 2.60; P = 0.046), and lower hypoechogenicity incidence in the plantar fascia (3/16 vs. 9/16; P = 0.033) than the palpation-guided group did at 3 mos postinjection. The heel pad was significantly thin (P = 0.004) in the palpation-guided group postinjection. CONCLUSIONS: Device-assisted ultrasound-guided injection for treating plantar fasciitis results in better therapeutic outcomes than palpation-guided injection does.

Concepts: Inflammations, Visual analogue scale, 2006 albums, Hypodermic needle, Syringe, Plantar fasciitis, Plantar fascia, Heel


Treatment options for the Dupuytren contractures vary from percutaneous needle aponeurotomy, open fasciotomy or fasciectomy, dermofasciectomy, and more recently, injectable collagenase. Although utilization of injectable collagenase avoids a formal surgical procedure, not all patients are eligible and some patients do not feel comfortable with an enzyme injection or the associated risks, which may include hematoma, wound dehiscence, or tendon rupture. This study describes the technique and early results of partial fasciectomy through a mini-incision approach as an additional treatment option for Dupuytren contractures. We found that this procedure results in contracture correction with a low rate of complications and thus provides the surgeon with an alternative treatment option to offer patients.

Concepts: Hospital, Surgery, Physician, Minimally invasive, Invasiveness of surgical procedures, Open surgery, Dupuytren's contracture, Hypodermic needle


Intravitreal injection is widely used for easy control of drug levels in posterior segment of the eye by injecting the drug directly with hypodermic needles. Patients, however, often experience complications from intravitreal injection due to repeated injections, increased intraocular pressure, and infection. In addition, injected drug reflux after intravitreal injection makes it challenging to maintain predetermined drug dose due to the drug loss through backward effusions. Here, we described that the Tower Microneedle can reduce initial reflux and bleb formation due to its smaller outer diameter compared to a traditional hypodermic needle. Furthermore, we use phenylephrine hydrochloride for pupil expansion and demonstrated that Tower Microneedle induced similar pupil expansions using only half the drug volume, in the same period of time, compared to the 31 Gauge hypodermic needle. Consequently, Tower Microneedle achieves the same therapeutic effect in the vitreous body using fewer drugs than a traditional hypodermic needle due to the decreased backward drug effusion. Tower Microneedle described herein holds great promise for intravitreal injection with less reflux and lower drug dosage.

Concepts: Therapeutic effect, Pharmacology, Eye, Hypodermic needle, Injection, Syringe, Stubs Iron Wire Gauge, Needle gauge comparison chart


Intramuscular epinephrine is the gold standard treatment for anaphylaxis. Intramuscular injection provides more rapid and higher plasma concentrations than subcutaneous routes. Given the increasing epidemic of obesity patients are at increased risk of subcutaneous delivery, we therefore assessed the depth of subcutaneous tissue in a population of patients with anaphlaxis. Patients already prescribed epinephrine autoinjectors (EAIs) for anaphylaxis were examined with ultrasound and measurements of skin-to-muscle depth (STMD) at anterolateral thigh and anterior thigh were performed. 28 patients (23 female, 5 male) with an age range of 18-75 took part in the study and in 68% the STMD was greater than EAI needle length (15.02mm) using the anterolateral thigh, the recommended administration site. The key predictors for increased STMD were female gender (p 0.0003) and a BMI > 30 (p 0.04). EAIs require longer needles to ensure intramuscular administration and ultrasound at point of prescription would aid needle length selection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Male, Gender, Epinephrine, Route of administration, All rights reserved, Anaphylaxis, Copyright, Hypodermic needle


The aim of the study was to investigate the thickness of subcutaneous (SC) tissue in the dorsogluteal and thigh sites in obese adults and its suitability for intramuscular injection using a standard-length needle.

Concepts: Obesity, Route of administration, Website, Subcutaneous tissue, Hypodermic needle, Routes of administration, Intramuscular injection


The purpose of this study was to compare the use of a traditional syringe (TS) and the DentalVibe (DV) Injection Comfort System on the pain of needle insertion and injection of supraperiosteal (SP) anaesthesia into the mandibles and maxillas of children aged 6-12 years.

Concepts: Clinical trial, The Canon of Medicine,, Evaluation methods, Hypodermic needle


Intradermal injection using a syringe and needle is generally accepted as the most accurate method for the tuberculin skin test (TST). However, the Mantoux technique using a conventional needle is often difficult to perform reliably, affecting testing results and safety.

Concepts: Mantoux test, Hypodermic needle, Injection