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Concept: Hypnosurgery

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Objectives To determine whether preoperative dexamethasone reduces postoperative vomiting in patients undergoing elective bowel surgery and whether it is associated with other measurable benefits during recovery from surgery, including quicker return to oral diet and reduced length of stay.Design Pragmatic two arm parallel group randomised trial with blinded postoperative care and outcome assessment.Setting 45 UK hospitals.Participants 1350 patients aged 18 or over undergoing elective open or laparoscopic bowel surgery for malignant or benign pathology.Interventions Addition of a single dose of 8 mg intravenous dexamethasone at induction of anaesthesia compared with standard care.Main outcome measures Primary outcome: reported vomiting within 24 hours reported by patient or clinician.

Concepts: Hospital, Randomized controlled trial, Surgery, Anesthesia, Vomiting, Laparoscopic surgery, Postoperative nausea and vomiting, Hypnosurgery

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BACKGROUND: Open thyroidectomy is associated with a high incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in up to 70 % of cases. Use of the recently introduced robot-assisted endoscopic thyroidectomy using a gasless transaxillary approach has been increasing because of its several advantages over open thyroidectomy. This study compared the incidence of PONV in the women who underwent open or robot-assisted thyroidectomy. METHODS: This prospective, double-blinded study enrolled 170 women 20-60 years of age who were scheduled for conventional open thyroidectomy (group O) or robot-assisted thyroidectomy (group R). A standard anesthetic technique, including sevoflurane and air in oxygen, was used. During a 0-24-h postoperative period, the presence and severity of PONV (nausea, retching/vomiting), severity of pain, need for rescue antiemetics, and the degree of patient satisfaction were evaluated. RESULTS: During the 0-6-h postoperative period, the incidence of PONV and mean pain score (40.0 vs. 51.8 %and 4.2 vs. 4.8 in groups R and O, respectively) were not significantly different. At 6-24 h postoperatively, the incidence of PONV (18.8 vs. 44.7 %), severe emesis (11.8 vs. 29.4 %) and mean pain score (2.8 vs. 3.8) were significantly lower in group R compared to group O, respectively. Overall, the incidence of PONV (42.4 vs. 63.5 %) and severe emesis (20.0 vs. 43.5 %) were significantly lower in group R compared to group O, respectively. The incidence of satisfied patients 6 and 24 h after the end of anesthesia (55.3 vs. 28.2 and 82.4 vs. 58.8 %) were significantly higher in group R compared to group O, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Robotic thyroidectomy reduces the incidence and severity of PONV compared to open thyroidectomy during a 0-24-h postoperative period.

Concepts: Chemotherapy, Anesthesia, Opioid, Vomiting, Nausea, Metoclopramide, Postoperative nausea and vomiting, Hypnosurgery

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Acupuncture therapy for preventive and treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting(PONV), a condition which commonly present after anaesthesia and surgery is a subject of growing interest.

Concepts: Medicine, Chemotherapy, Anesthesia, Acupuncture, Vomiting, Nausea, Postoperative nausea and vomiting, Hypnosurgery

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Guidance on pre-operative fluids fasting policy continues to evolve. Current European guidelines encourage the intake of oral fluids up to 2 h before the induction of general anaesthesia. From October 2014, Torbay Hospital Day Surgery Unit commenced an unrestricted fluid policy, encouraging patients to drink clear fluids up until the time of transfer to theatre.

Concepts: Hospital, Surgery, Chemotherapy, Physician, Anesthesia, Vomiting, Postoperative nausea and vomiting, Hypnosurgery

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Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) pathways have been shown in multiple surgical disciplines to improve outcomes, including reduced opioid consumption, length of stay, and post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV). However, very few studies describe the application of ERAS to breast surgery and even fewer describe ERAS for outpatient surgery. We describe the implementation and efficacy of an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) pathway for total skin-sparing mastectomy with immediate reconstruction in an outpatient setting.

Concepts: Surgery, Chemotherapy, Anesthesia, Opioid, Vomiting, Surgical oncology, Postoperative nausea and vomiting, Hypnosurgery

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Dexmedetomidine is known to reduce the incidence of emergence agitation, which is a common complication after inhalational anesthesia like sevoflurane or desflurane in children. However, the dose of dexmedetomidine used for this purpose is reported variously and the most effective dose is not known. In this study, we tried to find the most effective dose of dexmedetomidine to reduce the incidence of emergence agitation in children undergoing strabismus surgery without the complications like oculocardiac reflex (OCR) or postoperative vomiting.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Epidemiology, Randomized controlled trial, Anesthesia, Vomiting, Postoperative nausea and vomiting, Hypnosurgery, Halogenated ether

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Research has shown that high-risk surgical patients benefit from a multimodal therapeutic approach to prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). Our group sought to investigate the effect of administering IV midazolam on PONV.

Concepts: Chemotherapy, Anesthesia, Dehydration, Vomiting, Metoclopramide, Postoperative nausea and vomiting, Hypnosurgery

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The present guidelines are the most recent data on postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and an update on the 2 previous sets of guidelines published in 2003 and 2007. These guidelines were compiled by a multidisciplinary international panel of individuals with interest and expertise in PONV under the auspices of the Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia. The panel members critically and systematically evaluated the current medical literature on PONV to provide an evidence-based reference tool for the management of adults and children who are undergoing surgery and are at increased risk for PONV. These guidelines identify patients at risk for PONV in adults and children; recommend approaches for reducing baseline risks for PONV; identify the most effective antiemetic single therapy and combination therapy regimens for PONV prophylaxis, including nonpharmacologic approaches; recommend strategies for treatment of PONV when it occurs; provide an algorithm for the management of individuals at increased risk for PONV as well as steps to ensure PONV prevention and treatment are implemented in the clinical setting.

Concepts: Medicine, Evidence-based medicine, Chemotherapy, Anesthesia, Vomiting, Metoclopramide, Postoperative nausea and vomiting, Hypnosurgery

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Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a common and distressing problem for patients and increases the burden of care in post-anaesthesia care units (PACU). As such it has been a recent focus for quality improvement. Evidence-based guidelines have demonstrated the benefit of PONV risk stratification and prophylaxis, but may be underutilised in clinical practice. This prospective pre-/post-intervention study was conducted at an adult tertiary hospital in non-cardiac adult surgical patients at higher-risk of PONV. The intervention included promotion of an evidence-based PONV guideline, and provision of individualised prescribing and patient outcome data to anaesthetists. Six hundred and twenty-eight patients with ≥2 risk factors for PONV following general anaesthesia for non-cardiac surgery were included (333 pre-intervention and 295 post-intervention). Prior to the intervention, 9.0% (30/333) of moderate- and high-risk patients received antiemetic prophylaxis consistent with our guideline. Post-intervention, the rate of guideline adherence was 19.3% (57/295). In the high-risk PONV group, the time in PACU was significantly reduced post-intervention, 66 minutes versus 83 minutes (P=0.032). This institution-specific PONV reduction strategy had a modest but significant effect on improving prophylaxis administration. However, our findings indicate that further efforts would be required to ensure fuller compliance with the current extensive evidence base for PONV management in higher-risk patients.

Concepts: The Canon of Medicine, Surgery, Chemotherapy, Anesthesia, Vomiting, Metoclopramide, Postoperative nausea and vomiting, Hypnosurgery

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Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is one of the most unpleasant experiences after surgery. It reduces patient satisfaction and also increases hospital costs due to longer hospitalizations. The aim of this prospective study was to determine whether orthognathic surgery is associated with more PONV than less invasive maxillofacial surgery. Three hundred and eight patients aged 8-87 years who underwent maxillofacial surgery were included. The PONV score, based on the Apfel score, was calculated preoperatively. PONV occurred in 142 (46.1%) patients during the first three postoperative days; these patients were further categorized as having postoperative nausea (PON) and/or postoperative vomiting (POV). PON was most frequent after orthognathic surgery to the mandible (75%), and POV was most frequent after maxillary surgery, including bimaxillary surgery, Le Fort I osteotomy, and surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion (SARPE) (43.1%). There was a small significant relationship between the preoperative PONV score and the incidence of PONV: patients experienced more PONV when the PONV score calculated preoperatively was higher. The incidence of PONV after orthognathic surgery was very high compared with the incidence after dental extractions and other minor surgeries. Further investigation is required to establish a strategy to reduce PONV after orthognathic surgery.

Concepts: Hospital, Surgery, Anesthesia, Vomiting, Dentistry, Oral and maxillofacial surgery, Postoperative nausea and vomiting, Hypnosurgery