SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Hypervigilance

193

Domestic violence in the perinatal period is associated with adverse obstetric outcomes, but evidence is limited on its association with perinatal mental disorders. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and odds of having experienced domestic violence among women with antenatal and postnatal mental disorders (depression and anxiety disorders including post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD], eating disorders, and psychoses).

Concepts: Pregnancy, Childbirth, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Abnormal psychology, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Anxiety disorder, Anxiety disorders, Hypervigilance

52

Survivors of sexual violence have high rates of depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although treatment for symptoms related to sexual violence has been shown to be effective in high-income countries, evidence is lacking in low-income, conflict-affected countries.

Concepts: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Stress, Anxiety disorder, Sertraline, Rape, Hypervigilance

42

Alcoholism is frequently co-morbid with post-traumatic stress disorder, but it is unclear how alcohol affects the neural circuits mediating recovery from trauma. We found that chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) impaired fear extinction and remodeled the dendritic arbor of medial prefrontal cortical (mPFC) neurons in mice. CIE impaired extinction encoding by infralimbic mPFC neurons in vivo and functionally downregulated burst-mediating NMDA GluN1 receptors. These findings suggest that alcohol may increase risk for trauma-related anxiety disorders by disrupting mPFC-mediated extinction of fear.

Concepts: Anxiety, Alcohol abuse, Mental disorder, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Anxiety disorder, Panic disorder, Hypervigilance

27

Object Although it has been reported that awake neurosurgical procedures are well tolerated, the long-term occurrence of general psychological sequelae has not yet been investigated. This study assessed the frequency and effects of psychological symptoms after an awake craniotomy on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods Sixteen patients undergoing an awake surgery were surveyed with a self-developed questionnaire, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Inventory For Awake Surgery Patients, which adopts the core components of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) criteria. The mean time between surgery and data collection was 97.3 ± 93.2 weeks. Health-related quality of life was assessed with the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey. Results Forty-four percent of the patients stated that they had experienced either repetitive distressing recollections or dreams related to the awake surgery, 18.8% stated persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the awake surgery, and symptoms of increased arousal occurred in 62.5%. Two patients presented with postoperative psychological sequelae resembling PTSD symptoms. Younger age at surgery and female sex were risk factors for symptoms of increased arousal. The experience of intense anxiety during awake surgery appears to favor the development of postsurgical PTSD symptoms, while recurrent distressing recollections particularly affect HRQOL negatively. Conclusions In many cases awake craniotomy is necessary to preserve language and motor function. However, in some cases awake craniotomy can lead to postoperative psychological sequelae resembling PTSD symptoms. Therefore, possible long-term effects of an awake surgery should be considered and discussed with the patient when planning this type of surgery.

Concepts: Complex post-traumatic stress disorder, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Stress, Anxiety disorder, Rape, PTSD, Hypervigilance

26

Social cognition deficits are observed in a variety of psychiatric illnesses. However, data concerning anxiety disorders are sparse and difficult to interpret. This meta-analysis aims at determining if social cognition is affected in social phobia (SP) or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared to non-clinical controls and the specificity of such deficits relatively to other anxiety disorders. The scoping review aims to identify research gaps in the field. Forty studies assessing mentalizing, emotion recognition, social perception/knowledge or attributional style in anxiety disorders were included, totalizing 1417 anxious patients and 1321 non-clinical controls. Results indicate distinct patterns of social cognition impairments: people with PTSD show deficits in mentalizing (effect size d=-1.13) and emotion recognition (d=-1.6) while other anxiety disorders including SP showed attributional biases (d=-0.53 to d=-1.15). The scoping review identified several under investigated domains of social cognition in anxiety disorders. Some recommendations are expressed for future studies to explore the full range of social cognition in anxiety disorders and allow direct comparisons between different disorders.

Concepts: Psychology, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Abnormal psychology, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Anxiety disorder, Fear, Anxiety disorders, Hypervigilance

13

The criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder PTSD have changed considerably with the newest edition of the American Psychiatric Association’s (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Changes to the diagnostic criteria from the DSM-IV to DSM-5 include: the relocation of PTSD from the anxiety disorders category to a new diagnostic category named “Trauma and Stressor-related Disorders”, the elimination of the subjective component to the definition of trauma, the explication and tightening of the definitions of trauma and exposure to it, the increase and rearrangement of the symptoms criteria, and changes in additional criteria and specifiers. This article will explore the nosology of the current diagnosis of PTSD by reviewing the changes made to the diagnostic criteria for PTSD in the DSM-5 and discuss how these changes influence the conceptualization of PTSD.

Concepts: Greek loanwords, Mental disorder, Abnormal psychology, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Anxiety disorder, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Hypervigilance, American Psychiatric Association

12

Anxiety and sleep disorders are often the result of posttraumatic stress disorder and can contribute to an impaired ability to focus and to demonstration of oppositional behaviors.

Concepts: Anxiety, Sleep deprivation, Sleep disorder, Mental disorder, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Anxiety disorder, Hypervigilance, Insomnia

11

Yoga is increasingly used as a therapeutic treatment and seems to improve psychiatric conditions such as anxiety disorders and depression. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the evidence of yoga for reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Concepts: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Anxiety disorder, Anxiety disorders, Hypervigilance

10

Hurricane Sandy hit the eastern coast of the United States in October 2012, causing billions of dollars in damage and acute physical and mental health problems. The long-term mental health consequences of the storm and their predictors have not been studied. New York City and Long Island residents completed questionnaires regarding their initial Hurricane Sandy exposure and mental health symptoms at baseline and 1 year later (N = 130). There were statistically significant decreases in anxiety scores (mean difference = -0.33, p < 0.01) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) scores (mean difference = -1.98, p = 0.001) between baseline and follow-up. Experiencing a combination of personal and property damage was positively associated with long-term PTSD symptoms (ORadj 1.2, 95% CI [1.1-1.4]) but not with anxiety or depression. Having anxiety, depression, or PTSD at baseline was a significant predictor of persistent anxiety (ORadj 2.8 95% CI [1.1-6.8], depression (ORadj 7.4 95% CI [2.3-24.1) and PTSD (ORadj 4.1 95% CI [1.1-14.6]) at follow-up. Exposure to Hurricane Sandy has an impact on PTSD symptoms that persists over time. Given the likelihood of more frequent and intense hurricanes due to climate change, future hurricane recovery efforts must consider the long-term effects of hurricane exposure on mental health, especially on PTSD, when providing appropriate assistance and treatment.

Concepts: Mental disorder, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Prolonged exposure therapy, Sertraline, PTSD, Hypervigilance

9

Acute psychological stress, as well as unusual experiences including hallucinations and delusions, are common in critical care unit patients and have been linked to post-critical care psychological morbidity such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety. Little high-quality research has been conducted to evaluate psychological interventions that could alleviate longer-term psychological morbidity in the critical care unit setting. Our research team developed and piloted a nurse-led psychological intervention, aimed at reducing patient-reported PTSD symptom severity and other adverse psychological outcomes at 6 months, for evaluation in the POPPI trial.

Concepts: Psychological trauma, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Stress, Anxiety disorder, Sertraline, Hypervigilance