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Concept: Hyperuricosuria


BACKGROUND: Chronic drug interactions that exist between symptomatic congestive heart failure (CHF) therapy and pharmacologic agents used for hyperuricemia and gout are a challenging problem in clinical practice. Recent observational studies showed that prednisone can induce a potent diuresis and lower serum uric acid concentration (SUA) in CHF. We therefore designed a randomized study to compare the effect of prednisone with allopurinol on SUA in symptomatic CHF patients with hyperuricemia. METHODS: Thirty-four symptomatic CHF participants with hyperuricemia (≥ 565 μmol/L) were randomized to receive prednisone (1 mg/kg/d, orally) or allopurinol (100 mg, thrice daily, orally) for 4 weeks. The primary outcome measure was change from baseline in SUA. The secondary outcome measures were change from baseline in serum creatinine levels, estimated glomerular filtration rate, daily urine output, body weight, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels, physician-assessed global clinical status, and New York Heart Association functional class. RESULTS: Both prednisone and allopurinol greatly lowered SUA rapidly. The overall SUA-lowering effect did not differ between treatment groups during the study period (P = 0.48, 2-way repeated measures analysis of variance). However, prednisone increased estimated glomerular filtration rate and daily urine output, and lowered body weights and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide. Consequently, participants treated with prednisone had an improvement in clinical status. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that the SUA-lowering effect of prednisone and allopurinol is similar in symptomatic CHF patients. Prednisone might be useful for short-term SUA-lowering in CHF patients with hyperuricemia.

Concepts: Heart failure, Blood urea nitrogen, Creatinine, Gout, Urea, Uric acid, Hyperuricemia, Hyperuricosuria


Our goal was to establish a model for the evaluation of the effects of uricosuric agents and to clarify the underlying mechanism(s). The effects of a uricosuric agent co-treated with pyrazinamide, an anti-tubercular agent, on urate handling were examined in rats. Furthermore, the effects of uricosuric agents on urate uptake were evaluated using the vesicles of rat renal brush-border membrane. Treatment with probenecid, at a dose of 100 mg/kg, significantly increased the urinary urate to creatinine ratio (UUA/UCRE) in pyrazinamide-treated rats although the same treatment did not produce any uricosuric effects in intact rats. In this model, the urinary excretion of pyrazinecarboxylic acid (PZA), an active metabolite of pyrazinamide, was decreased by probenecid and indicated an inverse correlation between urinary excretion of urate and PZA. Furthermore, in the examination using FYU-981, a potent uricosuric agent, a more than 10-fold leftward shift of the dose-response relationship of the uricosuric effect was observed in pyrazinamide-treated rats when compared with intact rats. In the in vitro study, the treatment of the vesicles of rat renal brush-border membrane with PZA produced an increased urate uptake, which was inhibited by uricosuric agents. The pyrazinamide-treated model used in the present study seems to be valuable for the evaluation of uricosurics because of its higher sensitivity to these drugs when compared to intact rats, and this is probably due to the enhanced urate reabsorption accompanied with trans-stimulated PZA transport at the renal brush-border membrane.

Concepts: Pharmacology, In vitro, Gout, Hyperuricemia, Hypouricemia, Hyperuricosuria, Uricosuric, Probenecid


Verinurad (RDEA3170) is a selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor in development for treatment of gout and asymptomatic hyperuricemia. This phase 1, single-blind, multiple-dose, drug-drug interaction study evaluated the pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics, and safety/tolerability of verinurad in combination with febuxostat in healthy male volunteers. Twenty-three subjects were randomized and received once-daily doses of verinurad (or placebo) or febuxostat alone (days 1-7 and days 15-21), or verinurad + febuxostat on days 8-14. For combinations, subjects received verinurad 10 mg + febuxostat 40 mg or verinurad 2.5 mg + febuxostat 80 mg. Plasma/serum and urine samples were analyzed for verinurad, febuxostat, and uric acid. Safety was assessed by adverse events and laboratory tests. Febuxostat 40 mg had no effect on plasma exposure of verinurad 10 mg, whereas febuxostat 80 mg increased the maximum observed plasma concentration and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve of verinurad 2.5 mg by 25% and 33%, respectively. Verinurad had no effect on febuxostat PK. Maximal reduction in serum urate was 76% with verinurad 10 mg + febuxostat 40 mg versus verinurad 10 mg (56%) or febuxostat 40 mg (49%) alone and was 67% with verinurad 2.5 mg + febuxostat 80 mg versus verinurad 2.5 mg (38%) or febuxostat 80 mg (57%) alone. Verinurad increased, whereas febuxostat decreased, 24-hour fractional excretion and renal clearance of uric acid. There was no clinically significant drug-drug interaction between verinurad and febuxostat PK. The combination resulted in greater reductions of serum urate than either drug alone and was well tolerated at the studied doses.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Ammonia, Urine, Gout, Uric acid, Hyperuricemia, Hypouricemia, Hyperuricosuria


Mesoamerican nephropathy (MeN), an epidemic in Central America, is a chronic kidney disease of unknown cause. In this article, we argue that MeN may be a uric acid disorder. Individuals at risk for developing the disease are primarily male workers exposed to heat stress and physical exertion that predisposes to recurrent water and volume depletion, often accompanied by urinary concentration and acidification. Uric acid is generated during heat stress, in part consequent to nucleotide release from muscles. We hypothesize that working in the sugarcane fields may result in cyclic uricosuria in which uric acid concentrations exceed solubility, leading to the formation of dihydrate urate crystals and local injury. Consistent with this hypothesis, we present pilot data documenting the common presence of urate crystals in the urine of sugarcane workers from El Salvador. High end-of-workday urinary uric acid concentrations were common in a pilot study, particularly if urine pH was corrected to 7. Hyperuricemia may induce glomerular hypertension, whereas the increased urinary uric acid may directly injure renal tubules. Thus, MeN may result from exercise and heat stress associated with dehydration-induced hyperuricemia and uricosuria. Increased hydration with water and salt, urinary alkalinization, reduction in sugary beverage intake, and inhibitors of uric acid synthesis should be tested for disease prevention.

Concepts: Kidney, Ammonia, Urine, Metabolic syndrome, Gout, Uric acid, Hyperuricemia, Hyperuricosuria


Urine for diagnostics: Urine, a “green” natural product, is used as an active component to produce a simple, inexpensive, and portable colorimetric Hg(2+) sensing assay with high selectivity and sensitivity by simply mixing gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and urine. The synergetic effect of uric acid and creatinine decorated on AuNPs is the reason for selective binding of Hg(2+) , leading to the aggregation of gold nanoparticles and thereby causing a visible color change.

Concepts: Ammonia, Nanoparticle, Urine, Color, Gold, Urea, Uric acid, Hyperuricosuria


Current urate-lowering therapy (ULT) includes three direct acting drugs (allopurinol, febuxostat, Rasburicase) and at least four ‘indirect’ drugs with other important targets (canagliflozin, losartan, fenofibrate and sevelamer). Moreover, the alcalinization of urines using bicarbonate can be used to dissolve urate crystals and the clinician may discontinue several drugs are known to increase serum levels of uric acid, such as diuretics, aspirin, cyclosporine, theophylline, mycophenolate and ACE inhibitors. While there is a consensus to start ULT in cases of symptomatic hyperuricemia (gout, urate-nephrolithiasis), the very frequent conditions of asymptomatic hyperuricemia remains a major conundrum. The effect of asymptomatic hyperuricemia on kidney function has had fluctuating positions over decades. The conflicting results might indicate: (i) the presence of counterbalancing positive and negative effects on kidney function of both serum uric acid and urate-lowering agents, (ii) the presence of a subpopulation of patients, as yet unidentified, which could truly benefit from a urate-lowering therapy. Therefore, today the treatment of asymptomatic hyperuricemia is not recommended nor excluded by current guidelines. Here we suggest that a possible guide for the treatment of asymptomatic hyperuricemia might be the presence of urate crystals in the urine sediment and/or signs of asymptomatic articular damage by urates, identified by musculo-skeletal ultrasound. Moreover, a watchful analysis of the trend in creatinine/eGFR, proteinuria or urate levels might also guide the clinician. Initiation of ULT and follow-up in cases of asymptomatic hyperuricemia should consider urine sediment analysis, musculoskeletal ultrasound and trends in creatinine, proteinuria and serum urate levels.

Concepts: Ammonia, Urine, Gout, Urea, Uric acid, Hyperuricemia, Kidney stone, Hyperuricosuria


Despite being regarded as an easily-treatable disease, gout diagnosis and management can be challenging. We discuss here current issues in gout management and propose some potential solutions. Gout diagnosis should be reached as early as possible and often requires specific tests, such as synovial fluid analysis or imaging techniques that are not available in most centers, leaving health care professionals to rely only on clinical presentations and their experience. In addition, gout management requires the evaluation of multiple aspects, such as monitoring of serum uric acid (sUA) level (which should be reduced to <6 mg/dL) to ensure adherence and efficacy of treatment, evaluation of patient's risk profile and comorbidities, and continuous assessments to manage clinical manifestations. An important premise in gout management is non-pharmacological interventions; however, pharmacological urate-lowering therapy is crucial for an optimal control of the disease. Available options include xanthine-oxidase inhibitors (XOI), targeting uric acid overproduction, and uricosuric agents which target the predominant cause of hyperuricemia (underexcretion). Among these, lesinurad is the novel uricosuric agent to be used in combination with XOI in patients with gout not adequately controlled with XOI alone, which can further contribute to the control of hyperuricemia in gout. Multidisciplinary management is crucial for the diagnosis and treatment of gout in order to ensure treatment continuity and improve management. We therefore advise that educational activities for General Practitioners and specialists should be implemented to help raise awareness on gout diagnosis, monitoring and treatment.

Concepts: Gout, Uric acid, Hyperuricemia, Hypouricemia, Synovial fluid, Hyperuricosuria, Uricosuric


In this work, a green, simple, economical method was developed in the synthesis of fluorescent carbon dots using pork as carbon source. The as-prepared carbon dots exhibit exceptional advantages including high fluorescent quantum yield (17.3%) and satisfactory chemical stability. The fluorescence of carbon dots based nanosensor can be selectively and efficiently quenched by uric acid. This phenomenon was used to develop a fluorescent method for facile detection of uric acid within a linear range of 0.1-100μM and 100-500μM, with a detection limit of 0.05μM (S/N=3). Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied in the determination of uric acid in human serum and urine samples with satisfactory recoveries, which suggested that the new nanosensors have great prospect toward the detection of uric acid in human fluids.

Concepts: Oxygen, Ultraviolet, Ammonia, Urine, Carbon, Urea, Uric acid, Hyperuricosuria


Hyperuricemia occurs in 21.4% of the adult population and is associated with several conditions that increase oxidative stress and contributes to the pathogenesis of inflammatory mechanisms for the development and progression of diseases. Serum blood or urine samples of uric acid levels were used to mainly identify clinical problems, depending on the uric acid pathway alterations, which include synthesis, reabsorption or its excretion. Several proteins that act particularly as transporters (URAT1, GLUT9, 1-NPT1, 1-NPT4, OAT4, 9-MCT9, hUAT1, etc.) have been identified in the recent past involving tubular transport and clearance leading to clinical benefits. Until now, the knowledge of uric acid homeostasis centers its primary investigation on understanding molecular and genetic mechanisms, including the genetic polymorphisms that induce genetic and acquire renal tubular disorder, which increases or diminishes urate excretion.

Concepts: Ammonia, Urine, Oxidative stress, Nitrogen, Metabolic syndrome, Uric acid, Hyperuricemia, Hyperuricosuria


Uric acid (UA) is still considered a risk factor, or even a causative agent, for chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, a few, important, clinical questions remain unanswered; in particular: when and whether urate-lowering therapy should be commenced in subjects with asymptomatic hyperuricemia and/or monosodium urate crystals deposition? What is the most appropriate UA target to be achieved and how long does it need to be maintained? How does treatment need be adjusted in patients with chronic kidney disease?

Concepts: Chronic kidney disease, Urine, Gout, Uric acid, Hyperuricemia, Hypouricemia, Kidney stone, Hyperuricosuria