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Concept: Hyperspectral imaging

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Assessing oil pollution using traditional field-based methods over large areas is difficult and expensive. Remote sensing technologies with good spatial and temporal coverage might provide an alternative for monitoring oil pollution by recording the spectral signals of plants growing in polluted soils. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations of soils and the hyperspectral canopy reflectance were measured in wetlands dominated by reeds (Phragmites australis) around oil wells that have been producing oil for approximately 10 years in the Yellow River Delta, eastern China to evaluate the potential of vegetation indices and red edge parameters to estimate soil oil pollution. The detrimental effect of oil pollution on reed communities was confirmed by the evidence that the aboveground biomass decreased from 1076.5 g m(-2) to 5.3 g m(-2) with increasing total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations ranging from 9.45 mg kg(-1) to 652 mg kg(-1). The modified chlorophyll absorption ratio index (MCARI) best estimated soil TPH concentration among 20 vegetation indices. The linear model involving MCARI had the highest coefficient of determination (R(2) = 0.73) and accuracy of prediction (RMSE = 104.2 mg kg(-1)). For other vegetation indices and red edge parameters, the R(2) and RMSE values ranged from 0.64 to 0.71 and from 120.2 mg kg(-1) to 106.8 mg kg(-1) respectively. The traditional broadband normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), one of the broadband multispectral vegetation indices (BMVIs), produced a prediction (R(2) = 0.70 and RMSE = 110.1 mg kg(-1)) similar to that of MCARI. These results corroborated the potential of remote sensing for assessing soil oil pollution in large areas. Traditional BMVIs are still of great value in monitoring soil oil pollution when hyperspectral data are unavailable.

Concepts: Petroleum, People's Republic of China, Approximation, Estimation, Remote sensing, Hyperspectral imaging, Yellow River, Landfill

28

This study aimed to develop a method for the assessment of allergic dermatitis by using the long-wavelength near-infrared spectrum (more than 1000 nm) to detect intracutaneous allergic type-specific elements. Such a method was realized by establishing a spectral classifier for the spectra of type I and type IV allergic dermatitis reactions.

Concepts: Spectrum, Contact dermatitis, Imaging, Hyperspectral imaging, Spectra, Spectre

28

Quantitative observation of nerve fiber sections is often complemented by morphological analysis in both research and clinical condition. However, existing manual or semi-automated methods are tedious and labour intensive, fully automated morphometry methods are complicated as the information of color or gray images captured by traditional microscopy is limited. Moreover, most of the methods are time-consuming as the nerve sections need to be stained with some reagents before observation. To overcome these shortcomings, a molecular hyperspectral imaging system is developed and used to observe the spinal nerve sections. The molecular hyperspectral images contain both the structural and biochemical information of spinal nerve sections which is very useful for automatic identification and quantitative morphological analysis of nerve fibers. This characteristic makes it possible for researchers to observe the unstained spinal nerve and live cells in their native environment. To evaluate the performance of the new method, the molecular hyperspectral images were captured and the improved spectral angle mapper algorithm was proposed and used to segment the myelin contours. Then the morphological parameters such as myelin thickness and myelin area were calculated and evaluated. With these morphological parameters, the three dimension surface view images were drawn to help the investigators observe spinal nerve at different angles. The experiment results show that the hyperspectral based method has the potential to identify the spinal nerve more accurate than the traditional method as the new method contains both the spectral and spatial information of nerve sections.

Concepts: Nervous system, Scientific method, Action potential, Axon, Myelin, Nerve, Imaging, Hyperspectral imaging

28

The age estimation of blood stains can provide important information on the temporal aspects of a crime. As previously shown, visible spectroscopy of blood stains can successfully be used for their age estimation. In the present study we evaluated the feasibility to use hyperspectral imaging for this purpose. Visible reflectance spectra of blood stains were recorded using a pushbroom hyperspectral imaging system. From these spectra, the relative amounts of oxyhemoglobin, methemoglobin and hemichrome within the blood stains were derived. By comparison of the hemoglobin derivative fractions with a reference dataset, the age of blood stains up to 200 days old was estimated. The absolute error of the age estimation task increased with age, with a median relative error of 13.4% of the actual age. To test the practical applicability of this method, a simulated crime scene was analyzed, in which blood stains of several ages were deposited. Hyperspectral imaging combined with the proposed analysis provided insight in the absolute age of the blood stains. Additionally, the blood stains were clustered based on their hemoglobin derivative fractions, without the use of a reference dataset. Results demonstrated that the order of formation of blood stains can be determined, even under unknown environmental circumstances, when no proficient reference dataset is available. These findings are an important step toward the practical implementation of blood stain age estimation in forensic casework.

Concepts: Hemoglobin, Spectroscopy, Statistics, The Age, Imaging, Hyperspectral imaging, Bloodstain pattern analysis, Airborne Real-time Cueing Hyperspectral Enhanced Reconnaissance

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Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) integrates conventional imaging and spectroscopy, to obtain both spatial and spectral information from a specimen. This technique enables investigators to analyze the chemical composition of traces and simultaneously visualize their spatial distribution. HSI offers significant potential for the detection, visualization, identification and age estimation of forensic traces. The rapid, non-destructive and non-contact features of HSI mark its suitability as an analytical tool for forensic science. This paper provides an overview of the principles, instrumentation and analytical techniques involved in hyperspectral imaging. We describe recent advances in HSI technology motivating forensic science applications, e.g. the development of portable and fast image acquisition systems. Reported forensic science applications are reviewed. Challenges are addressed, such as the analysis of traces on backgrounds encountered in casework, concluded by a summary of possible future applications.

Concepts: Spectroscopy, Mathematics, Physics, Forensic science, Graphic design, Imaging, Hyperspectral imaging, Profiling practices

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ABSTRACT. We developed a new, easy, and objective method to detect gastric cancer using hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technology combining spectroscopy and imaging A total of 16 gastroduodenal tumors removed by endoscopic resection or surgery from 14 patients at Yamaguchi University Hospital, Japan, were recorded using a hyperspectral camera (HSC) equipped with HSI technology Corrected spectral reflectance was obtained from 10 samples of normal mucosa and 10 samples of tumors for each case The 16 cases were divided into eight training cases (160 training samples) and eight test cases (160 test samples) We established a diagnostic algorithm with training samples and evaluated it with test samples Diagnostic capability of the algorithm for each tumor was validated, and enhancement of tumors by image processing using the HSC was evaluated The diagnostic algorithm used the 726-nm wavelength, with a cutoff point established from training samples The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy rates of the algorithm’s diagnostic capability in the test samples were 78.8% (63/80), 92.5% (74/80), and 85.6% (137/160), respectively Tumors in HSC images of 13 (81.3%) cases were well enhanced by image processing Differences in spectral reflectance between tumors and normal mucosa suggested that tumors can be clearly distinguished from background mucosa with HSI technology.

Concepts: Cancer, Imaging, Hyperspectral imaging

1

Pushing the emission wavelength of efficient ultraviolet (UV) emitters further into the deep-UV requires material with high crystal quality, while also reducing the detrimental effects of built-in electric fields. Crack-free semi-polar [Formula: see text] Al x Ga1-x N epilayers with AlN contents up to x = 0.56 and high crystal quality were achieved using an overgrowth method employing GaN microrods on m-sapphire. Two dominant emission peaks were identified using cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging. The longer wavelength peak originates near and around chevron-shaped features, whose density is greatly increased for higher contents. The emission from the majority of the surface is dominated by the shorter wavelength peak, influenced by the presence of basal-plane stacking faults (BSFs). Due to the overgrowth technique BSFs are bunched up in parallel stripes where the lower wavelength peak is broadened and hence appears slightly redshifted compared with the higher quality regions in-between. Additionally, the density of threading dislocations in these region is one order of magnitude lower compared with areas affected by BSFs as ascertained by electron channelling contrast imaging. Overall, the luminescence properties of semi-polar AlGaN epilayers are strongly influenced by the overgrowth method, which shows that reducing the density of extended defects improves the optical performance of high AlN content AlGaN structures.

Concepts: Fluorescence, Photon, Materials science, Wavelength, Crystallographic defect, Cathodoluminescence, Hyperspectral imaging, Gallium nitride

0

Rapid and visual detection of the chemical compositions of plant seeds is important but difficult for a traditional seed quality analysis system. In this study, a custom-designed line-scan Raman hyperspectral imaging system was applied for detecting and displaying the main chemical compositions in a heterogeneous maize seed. Raman hyperspectral images collected from the endosperm and embryo of maize seed were acquired and preprocessed by Savitzky-Golay (SG) filter and adaptive iteratively reweighted Penalized Least Squares (airPLS). Three varieties of maize seeds were analyzed, and the characteristics of the spectral and spatial information were extracted from each hyperspectral image. The Raman characteristic peaks, identified at 477, 1443, 1522, 1596 and 1654 cm-1 from 380 to 1800 cm-1 Raman spectra, were related to corn starch, mixture of oil and starch, zeaxanthin, lignin and oil in maize seeds, respectively. Each single-band image corresponding to the characteristic band characterized the spatial distribution of the chemical composition in a seed successfully. The embryo was distinguished from the endosperm by band operation of the single-band images at 477, 1443, and 1596 cm-1 for each variety. Results showed that Raman hyperspectral imaging system could be used for on-line quality control of maize seeds based on the rapid and visual detection of the chemical compositions in maize seeds.

Concepts: Plant, Starch, Fruit, Maize, Seed, IMAGE, Imaging, Hyperspectral imaging

0

In the pursuit of sources of energy, biofuel pellet is emerging as a promising resource because of its easy storage and transport, and lower pollution to the environment. The composition of biomass has important implication for energy conversion processing strategies. Current standard chemical methods for biomass composition are laborious, time-consuming, and unsuitable for high-throughput analysis. Therefore, a reliable and efficient method is needed for determining lignocellulose composition in biomass and so to accelerate biomass utilization. Here, near-infrared hyperspectral imaging (900-1700 nm) together with chemometrics was used to determine the lignocellulose components in different types of biofuel pellets. Partial least-squares regression and principal component multiple linear regression models based on whole wavelengths and optimal wavelengths were employed and compared for predicting lignocellulose composition.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Linear regression, Least squares, Ordinary least squares, Object-oriented programming, Forecasting, Imaging, Hyperspectral imaging

0

The huge quantity of information and the high spectral resolution of hyperspectral imagery present a challenge when performing traditional processing techniques such as classification. Dimensionality and noise reduction improves both efficiency and accuracy, while retaining essential information. Among the many dimensionality reduction methods, Independent Component Analysis (ICA) is one of the most popular techniques. However, ICA is computationally costly, and given the absence of specific criteria for component selection, constrains its application in high-dimension data analysis. To overcome this limitation, we propose a novel approach that applies Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) as preprocessing for ICA. Our method exploits the unique capacity of DCT to pack signal energy in few low-frequency coefficients, thus reducing noise and computation time. Subsequently, ICA is applied on this reduced data to make the output components as independent as possible for subsequent hyperspectral classification. To evaluate this novel approach, the reduced data using (1) ICA without preprocessing; (2) ICA with the commonly used preprocessing techniques which is Principal Component Analysis (PCA); and (3) ICA with DCT preprocessing are tested with Support Vector Machine (SVM) and K-Nearest Neighbor (K-NN) classifiers on two real hyperspectral datasets. Experimental results in both instances indicate that data after our proposed DCT preprocessing method combined with ICA yields superior hyperspectral classification accuracy.

Concepts: Redox, Data analysis, Principal component analysis, Machine learning, Fourier analysis, Hyperspectral imaging, Independent component analysis, Nonlinear dimensionality reduction