SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Hyperopia

28

To discuss current applications and advantages of femtosecond laser technology over traditional manual techniques and related unique complications in corneal refractive surgical procedures, including LASIK flap creation, intracorneal ring segment implantation, astigmatic keratotomy, presbyopic treatments, and intrastromal lenticule procedures.

Concepts: Surgery, Laser, Cornea, Ophthalmology, Refractive surgery, LASIK, Hyperopia, Laser surgery

27

In this brief review we will discuss the reasoning and evolution of our current use of combined very high-fluence collagen crosslinking and laser in situ keratomileusis. Several presentations and pertinent publications are reviewed, along with the key steps of the enhanced LASIK procedure. Long term outcome data support the safety and efficacy of LASIK Xtra in stabilizing myopic but also hyperopic LASIK results.In conclusion, we have compelling evidence that LASIK Xtra is a safe and effective adjunct.

Concepts: Critical thinking, Laser, The Key, Ophthalmology, Term, Refractive surgery, LASIK, Hyperopia

27

Comparison between treatment with wavefront optimized and custom-Q laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) ablations. Our study included 400 eyes of 200 patients divided into two equal groups. All patients were treated for myopia and myopic astigmatism with LASIK. The first group was treated with wavefront optimized ablation and the second group with custom-Q ablation. They were examined preoperatively and postoperatively to assess asphericity, image quality, and other classical outcome parameters. The wavefront optimized ablation group comprised 200 eyes with a mean spherical equivalent refraction (SE) of -5.2188 diopters (D) (range: -1.15 to -10.50 D); the mean Q-value changed from 0.30 preoperatively to 0.06 postoperatively. The custom-Q ablation group also comprised 200 eyes with a mean SE of -5.1575 D (range: -1.35 to -9.00 D); the mean Q-value changed from 0.32 preoperatively to 0.03 postoperatively. A statistically significant difference in postoperative change in Q-values (P = 0.02) and in postoperative visual acuity (P = 0.42) between the two groups was noted. There was no difference between the two groups regarding refractive correction. There was a marginally significant change in BSCVA (best spectacle-corrected visual acuity) between the two groups, and less impairment in the corneal asphericity in the custom-Q group.

Concepts: Ophthalmology, Refractive surgery, Lens, Presbyopia, Eyeglass prescription, Contact lens, Refractive error, Hyperopia

27

PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between parental refractive error and the nearwork-induced transient myopia (NITM) characteristics of their children. METHODS: Three hundred sixty children (173 boys and 187 girls) aged 6 to 17 years were tested. Initial NITM and its decay time (DT) were assessed objectively (WAM-5500, Grand-Seiko) immediately after binocularly viewing and performing a sustained near task (5 diopters [D]) for 5 minutes, incorporating a cognitive demand with full distance refractive correction in place. The NITM was classified into three categories: low (<0.15 D), moderate (0.15 to 0.30 D), or high (≥0.30 D), whereas its decay was classified into two categories, namely, complete or incomplete. In addition, the children were divided into three groups based on the number of myopic parents (none, one, or two) and into four groups based on the level of parental myopia (no, low, moderate, or high). RESULTS: Neither paternal nor maternal refractive error was associated with either their children's initial NITM magnitude or its DT in the myopic, emmetropic, or hyperopic groups or the combined group. No significant differences (p > 0.05) in the NITM magnitude, DT, or decay time constant were found as related to the number of myopic parents or level of parental myopia. Multiple odds ratio for incomplete decay of NITM did not change significantly (p > 0.05) with either an increase in number of myopic parents or level of parental myopia. CONCLUSIONS: There was no association between parental refractive error and their children’s NITM characteristics. This suggests a primary environmental basis for the NITM characteristics in the children.

Concepts: Myopia, Lens, Corrective lens, Refractive error, Hyperopia

27

A cross-sectional study was undertaken in Nakuru, Kenya to assess the prevalence of refractive error and the spectacle coverage in a population aged ≥50 years. Of the 5,010 subjects who were eligible, 4,414 underwent examination (response rate 88.1 %). LogMAR visual acuity was assessed in all participants and refractive error was measured in both eyes using a Topcon auto refractor RM8800. Detailed interviews were undertaken and ownership of spectacles was assessed. Refractive error was responsible for 51.7 % of overall visual impairment (VI), 85.3 % (n = 191) of subjects with mild VI, 42.7 % (n = 152) of subjects with moderate VI, 16.7 % (n = 3) of subjects with severe VI and no cases of blindness. Myopia was more common than hyperopia affecting 59.5 % of those with refractive error compared to 27.4 % for hyperopia. High myopia (<-5.0 DS) was also more common than extreme hyperopia (>+5.0 DS). Of those who needed distance spectacles (spectacle coverage), 25.5 % owned spectacles. In conclusion, the oldest, most poor and least educated are most likely to have no spectacles and they should be specifically targeted when refractive services are put in place.

Concepts: Visual acuity, Ophthalmology, Myopia, Corrective lens, Refractive error, Hyperopia, Visual impairment, Glasses

17

To compare early literacy of 4- and 5-year-old uncorrected hyperopic children with that of emmetropic children.

Concepts: Eye, Hyperopia, Optometry, Children's literature

3

To investigate the presence of asymmetrical accommodation in hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia.

Concepts: Amblyopia, Hyperopia, Accommodation

0

Uncorrected refractive errors are a leading cause of visual impairment across the world. In today’s society, laser in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK) has become the most commonly performed surgical procedure to correct refractive errors. However, regression of the initially-achieved refractive correction has been a widely-observed phenomenon following LASIK since its inception more than two decades ago. Despite technological advances in laser refractive surgery and various proposed management strategies, post-LASIK regression is still frequently observed and has significant implications for the long-term visual performance and quality of life of patients. This review explores the mechanism of refractive regression after both myopic and hyperopic LASIK, predisposing risk factors and its clinical course. In addition, current preventative strategies and therapies are also reviewed.

Concepts: Medicine, Surgery, Laser, Ophthalmology, Myopia, Refractive surgery, LASIK, Hyperopia

0

The effectiveness of multifocal contact lenses (MFCLs) at slowing myopia progression may hinge on the accommodative behavior of young eyes fit with these presbyopic style lenses. Can they remove hyperopic defocus? Convergence accommodation as well as pupil size and the zonal geometry are likely to contribute to the final accommodative responses.

Concepts: Eye, Cornea, Myopia, Presbyopia, Corrective lens, Hyperopia, Optometry, Accommodation

0

To compare the postoperative higher-order-aberrations (HOAs) after hyperopic small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE), hyperopic laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis(LASIK), and lenticule implantation for correction of hyperopia.

Concepts: Carcinoma in situ, In situ, LASIK, Hyperopia