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Concept: Hyperglycemia


Background In most patients with type 1 diabetes, adequate glycemic control is not achieved with insulin therapy alone. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of sotagliflozin, an oral inhibitor of sodium-glucose cotransporters 1 and 2, in combination with insulin treatment in patients with type 1 diabetes. Methods In this phase 3, double-blind trial, which was conducted at 133 centers worldwide, we randomly assigned 1402 patients with type 1 diabetes who were receiving treatment with any insulin therapy (pump or injections) to receive sotagliflozin (400 mg per day) or placebo for 24 weeks. The primary end point was a glycated hemoglobin level lower than 7.0% at week 24, with no episodes of severe hypoglycemia or diabetic ketoacidosis after randomization. Secondary end points included the change from baseline in glycated hemoglobin level, weight, systolic blood pressure, and mean daily bolus dose of insulin. Results A significantly larger proportion of patients in the sotagliflozin group than in the placebo group achieved the primary end point (200 of 699 patients [28.6%] vs. 107 of 703 [15.2%], P<0.001). The least-squares mean change from baseline was significantly greater in the sotagliflozin group than in the placebo group for glycated hemoglobin (difference, -0.46 percentage points), weight (-2.98 kg), systolic blood pressure (-3.5 mm Hg), and mean daily bolus dose of insulin (-2.8 units per day) (P≤0.002 for all comparisons). The rate of severe hypoglycemia was similar in the sotagliflozin group and the placebo group (3.0% [21 patients] and 2.4% [17], respectively). The rate of documented hypoglycemia with a blood glucose level of 55 mg per deciliter (3.1 mmol per liter) or below was significantly lower in the sotagliflozin group than in the placebo group. The rate of diabetic ketoacidosis was higher in the sotagliflozin group than in the placebo group (3.0% [21 patients] and 0.6% [4], respectively). Conclusions Among patients with type 1 diabetes who were receiving insulin, the proportion of patients who achieved a glycated hemoglobin level lower than 7.0% with no severe hypoglycemia or diabetic ketoacidosis was larger in the group that received sotagliflozin than in the placebo group. However, the rate of diabetic ketoacidosis was higher in the sotagliflozin group. (Funded by Lexicon Pharmaceuticals; inTandem3 number, NCT02531035 .).

Concepts: Hypoglycemia, Diabetic ketoacidosis, Blood sugar, Hyperglycemia, Insulin, Diabetes mellitus type 1, Diabetes, Diabetes mellitus


Background In multicenter studies, tight glycemic control targeting a normal blood glucose level has not been shown to improve outcomes in critically ill adults or children after cardiac surgery. Studies involving critically ill children who have not undergone cardiac surgery are lacking. Methods In a 35-center trial, we randomly assigned critically ill children with confirmed hyperglycemia (excluding patients who had undergone cardiac surgery) to one of two ranges of glycemic control: 80 to 110 mg per deciliter (4.4 to 6.1 mmol per liter; lower-target group) or 150 to 180 mg per deciliter (8.3 to 10.0 mmol per liter; higher-target group). Clinicians were guided by continuous glucose monitoring and explicit methods for insulin adjustment. The primary outcome was the number of intensive care unit (ICU)-free days to day 28. Results The trial was stopped early, on the recommendation of the data and safety monitoring board, owing to a low likelihood of benefit and evidence of the possibility of harm. Of 713 patients, 360 were randomly assigned to the lower-target group and 353 to the higher-target group. In the intention-to-treat analysis, the median number of ICU-free days did not differ significantly between the lower-target group and the higher-target group (19.4 days [interquartile range {IQR}, 0 to 24.2] and 19.4 days [IQR, 6.7 to 23.9], respectively; P=0.58). In per-protocol analyses, the median time-weighted average glucose level was significantly lower in the lower-target group (109 mg per deciliter [IQR, 102 to 118]; 6.1 mmol per liter [IQR, 5.7 to 6.6]) than in the higher-target group (123 mg per deciliter [IQR, 108 to 142]; 6.8 mmol per liter [IQR, 6.0 to 7.9]; P<0.001). Patients in the lower-target group also had higher rates of health care-associated infections than those in the higher-target group (12 of 349 patients [3.4%] vs. 4 of 349 [1.1%], P=0.04), as well as higher rates of severe hypoglycemia, defined as a blood glucose level below 40 mg per deciliter (2.2 mmol per liter) (18 patients [5.2%] vs. 7 [2.0%], P=0.03). No significant differences were observed in mortality, severity of organ dysfunction, or the number of ventilator-free days. Conclusions Critically ill children with hyperglycemia did not benefit from tight glycemic control targeted to a blood glucose level of 80 to 110 mg per deciliter, as compared with a level of 150 to 180 mg per deciliter. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and others; HALF-PINT number, NCT01565941 .).

Concepts: Diabetes, Blood glucose monitoring, Interquartile range, Median, Carbohydrate, Diabetes mellitus, Hyperglycemia, Blood sugar


Background The threshold-suspend feature of sensor-augmented insulin pumps is designed to minimize the risk of hypoglycemia by interrupting insulin delivery at a preset sensor glucose value. We evaluated sensor-augmented insulin-pump therapy with and without the threshold-suspend feature in patients with nocturnal hypoglycemia. Methods We randomly assigned patients with type 1 diabetes and documented nocturnal hypoglycemia to receive sensor-augmented insulin-pump therapy with or without the threshold-suspend feature for 3 months. The primary safety outcome was the change in the glycated hemoglobin level. The primary efficacy outcome was the area under the curve (AUC) for nocturnal hypoglycemic events. Two-hour threshold-suspend events were analyzed with respect to subsequent sensor glucose values. Results A total of 247 patients were randomly assigned to receive sensor-augmented insulin-pump therapy with the threshold-suspend feature (threshold-suspend group, 121 patients) or standard sensor-augmented insulin-pump therapy (control group, 126 patients). The changes in glycated hemoglobin values were similar in the two groups. The mean AUC for nocturnal hypoglycemic events was 37.5% lower in the threshold-suspend group than in the control group (980±1200 mg per deciliter [54.4±66.6 mmol per liter]×minutes vs. 1568±1995 mg per deciliter [87.0±110.7 mmol per liter]×minutes, P<0.001). Nocturnal hypoglycemic events occurred 31.8% less frequently in the threshold-suspend group than in the control group (1.5±1.0 vs. 2.2±1.3 per patient-week, P<0.001). The percentages of nocturnal sensor glucose values of less than 50 mg per deciliter (2.8 mmol per liter), 50 to less than 60 mg per deciliter (3.3 mmol per liter), and 60 to less than 70 mg per deciliter (3.9 mmol per liter) were significantly reduced in the threshold-suspend group (P<0.001 for each range). After 1438 instances at night in which the pump was stopped for 2 hours, the mean sensor glucose value was 92.6±40.7 mg per deciliter (5.1±2.3 mmol per liter). Four patients (all in the control group) had a severe hypoglycemic event; no patients had diabetic ketoacidosis. Conclusions This study showed that over a 3-month period the use of sensor-augmented insulin-pump therapy with the threshold-suspend feature reduced nocturnal hypoglycemia, without increasing glycated hemoglobin values. (Funded by Medtronic MiniMed; ASPIRE number, NCT01497938 .).

Concepts: Hypoglycemia, Blood sugar, Glucose meter, Diabetes mellitus type 1, Diabetes, Hyperglycemia, Insulin, Diabetes mellitus


Glucagon secretion dysregulation in diabetes fosters hyperglycemia. Recent studies report that mice lacking glucagon receptor (Gcgr(-/-)) do not develop diabetes following streptozotocin (STZ)-mediated ablation of insulin-producing β-cells. Here, we show that diabetes prevention in STZ-treated Gcgr(-/-) animals requires remnant insulin action originating from spared residual β-cells: these mice indeed became hyperglycemic after insulin receptor blockade. Accordingly, Gcgr(-/-) mice developed hyperglycemia after induction of a more complete, diphtheria toxin (DT)-induced β-cell loss, a situation of near-absolute insulin deficiency similar to type 1 diabetes. In addition, glucagon deficiency did not impair the natural capacity of ncy did not impair the natural capacity α-cells to reprogram into insulin production after extreme β-cell loss. α-to-β-cell conversion was improved in Gcgr(-/-) mice as a consequence of α-cell hyperplasia. Collectively, these results indicate that glucagon antagonism could i) be a useful adjuvant therapy in diabetes only when residual insulin action persists, and ii) help devising future β-cell regeneration therapies relying upon α-cell reprogramming.

Concepts: Hormone, Insulin resistance, Hyperglycemia, Diabetes mellitus type 1, Hypoglycemia, Glucagon, Diabetes mellitus, Insulin


Previous literature indicates that pre-diagnostic diabetes and blood glucose levels are inversely related to glioma risk. To replicate these findings and determine whether they could be attributed to excess glucose consumption by the preclinical tumour, we used data from the Apolipoprotein MOrtality RISk (AMORIS) (n = 528,580) and the Metabolic syndrome and Cancer project (Me-Can) cohorts (n = 269,365). We identified individuals who were followed for a maximum of 15 years after their first blood glucose test until glioma diagnosis, death, emigration or the end of follow-up. Hazard ratios (HRs), 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and their interactions with time were estimated using Cox time-dependent regression. As expected, pre-diagnostic blood glucose levels were inversely related to glioma risk (AMORIS, P trend = 0.002; Me-Can, P trend = 0.04) and pre-diagnostic diabetes (AMORIS, HR = 0.30, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.53). During the year before diagnosis, blood glucose was inversely associated with glioma in the AMORIS (HR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.93) but not the Me-Can cohort (HR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.63 to 1.56). This AMORIS result is consistent with our hypothesis that excess glucose consumption by the preclinical tumour accounts for the inverse association between blood glucose and glioma. We discuss additional hypothetical mechanisms that may explain our paradoxical findings.

Concepts: Blood tests, Hyperglycemia, Glucose tolerance test, Prediction interval, Scientific method, Nutrition, Diabetes mellitus, Blood sugar


Diabetes is a common chronic condition and as of 2015, approximately 30 million persons in the United States had diabetes (23 million with diagnosed and 7 million with undiagnosed) (1). Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening but preventable complication of diabetes characterized by uncontrolled hyperglycemia (>250 mg/dL), metabolic acidosis, and increased ketone concentration that occurs most frequently in persons with type 1 diabetes (2). CDC’s United States Diabetes Surveillance System* (USDSS) indicated an increase in hospitalization rates for DKA during 2009-2014, most notably in persons aged <45 years. To explore this finding, 2000-2014 data from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's National Inpatient Sample (NIS)†were assembled to calculate trends in DKA hospitalization rates and in-hospital case-fatality rates. Overall, age-adjusted DKA hospitalization rates decreased slightly from 2000 to 2009, then reversed direction, steadily increasing from 2009 to 2014 at an average annual rate of 6.3%. In-hospital case-fatality rates declined consistently during the study period from 1.1% to 0.4%. Better understanding the causes of this increasing trend in DKA hospitalizations and decreasing trend in in-hospital case-fatality through further exploration using multiple data sources will facilitate the targeting of prevention efforts.

Concepts: Maturity onset diabetes of the young, Hyperglycemia, Diabetes, Ketone bodies, Ketoacidosis, Diabetic ketoacidosis, Diabetes mellitus type 1, Diabetes mellitus


To understand the risk of hypoglycemia associated with urinary glucose excretion (UGE) induced by sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) inhibitors, it is necessary to know the relationship between the ratio of contribution of SGLT2 versus SGLT1 to renal glucose reabsorption (RGR) and the glycemic levels in vivo. To examine the contributions of SGLT2 and SGLT1 in normal rats we compared the RGR inhibition by tofogliflozin, a highly specific SGLT2 inhibitor, and phlorizin, a SGLT1 and SGLT2 (SGLT1/2) inhibitor, at plasma concentrations sufficient to completely inhibit rat SGLT2 (rSGLT2) while inhibiting rSGLT1 to different degrees. Under hyperglycemic conditions by glucose titration, tofogliflozin and phlorizin achieved ≥50% inhibition of RGR. Under hypoglycemic conditions by hyperinsulinemic clamp, RGR was reduced by 20-50% with phlorizin and by 1-5% with tofogliflozin, suggesting the smaller contribution of rSGLT2 to RGR under hypoglycemic conditions than under hyperglycemic conditions. Next, to evaluate the hypoglycemic potentials of SGLT1/2 inhibition, we measured the plasma glucose (PG) and endogenous glucose production (EGP) simultaneously after UGE induction by SGLT inhibitors. Tofogliflozin (400 ng/mL) induced UGE of about 2 mg•kg(-1)•min(-1) and increased EGP by 1-2 mg•kg(-1)•min(-1) resulting in PG in the normal range. Phlorizin (1333 ng/mL) induced UGE of about 6 mg•kg(-1)•min(-1) and increased EGP by about 4 mg•kg(-1)•min(-1); this was more than with tofogliflozin, but the minimum PG was lower. These results suggest that the contribution of SGLT1 to RGR is greater under lower glycemic conditions than under hyperglycemic conditions, and that SGLT2-selective inhibitors pose a lower risk of hypoglycemia than SGLT1/2 inhibitors.

Concepts: SLC5A1, Hyperglycemia, Sodium-glucose transport proteins, Co-transport, Enzyme inhibitor, Diabetes mellitus, Xanthine oxidase inhibitor, Inhibitor


To explore the relationship between family history of diabetes and frequency of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at diagnosis and to analyze the possible association between HLA genotypes and DKA.

Concepts: Hyperglycemia, Ketone bodies, Maturity onset diabetes of the young, Diabetes, Diabetes mellitus type 1, Diabetic ketoacidosis, Ketoacidosis, Diabetes mellitus


: Our objective was to quantify the association between intensive care unit-acquired dysglycemia (hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and high variability) and in-hospital mortality.

Concepts: Sunshine pop, Hyperglycemia, Hypoglycemia, The Association


AIMS: We investigated the dynamics and morphology of thymus macrophages in response to thymus involution caused by hyperglycemia. Thymus is an organ affected early and dramatically after the onset of diabetes, losing most of the thymocyte populations but diabetes’s impact on the components of the thymus stroma is largely unknown. METHODS: Rats were injected with streptozotocin and thymus weight, body weight, and glycemia were measured at various time points. The dynamics and morphology of macrophages in the diabetic thymus were investigated by histology, immunohistochemistry, qPCR, electron microscopy and flow cytometry. RESULTS: In hyperglycemic animals the involuting thymus is gradually infiltrated by tissue macrophages (ED1-positive) and depleted of resident macrophages (ED2-positive). While ED1 positive macrophages are scattered in both cortex and medulla the ED2 positive ones are limited to the cortex and cortico-medullary junction. CD4+CD11b+macrophages also accumulate. The TUNEL reaction that detects the degradation of the DNA from apoptotic thymocytes in the macrophages is enhanced. The thymic macrophages enlarge and accumulate lipid vacuoles and apoptotic bodies. qPCR measurements of the expression of macrophage markers showed a persistent increase in the diabetic thymus after the injection of streptozotocin. CONCLUSIONS: Thymus involutes rapidly and persistently after the onset of hyperglycemia because of the elevated apoptosis in the thymocytes. Tissue macrophages accumulate in the thymus and the resident macrophages decrease. This results in an overall increase in macrophage activity in the diabetic thymus in response to the elevated apoptosis of thymocytes produced by hyperglycemia.

Concepts: Monocyte, Diabetes mellitus, Hyperglycemia, Thymocyte, Macrophage, Apoptosis, Immune system, Thymus