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Concept: Hyperemesis gravidarum


Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG), severe nausea and vomiting of pregnancy, occurs in 0.3-2% of pregnancies and is associated with maternal and fetal morbidity. The cause of HG remains unknown, but familial aggregation and results of twin studies suggest that understanding the genetic contribution is essential for comprehending the disease etiology. Here, we conduct a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for binary (HG) and ordinal (severity of nausea and vomiting) phenotypes of pregnancy complications. Two loci, chr19p13.11 and chr4q12, are genome-wide significant (p < 5 × 10-8) in both association scans and are replicated in an independent cohort. The genes implicated at these two loci are GDF15 and IGFBP7 respectively, both known to be involved in placentation, appetite, and cachexia. While proving the casual roles of GDF15 and IGFBP7 in nausea and vomiting of pregnancy requires further study, this GWAS provides insights into the genetic risk factors contributing to the disease.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Genetics, Fetus, Genome-wide association study, Vomiting, Nausea, Hyperemesis gravidarum, Morning sickness


This study is aimed at determining the efficacy of Mentha spicata (M. spicata) and Mentha × piperita (M. × piperita) in preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV).

Concepts: Chemotherapy, Volatile, Hyperemesis gravidarum, Herbs, Mentha, Essential oils, Mentha spicata, Mentha aquatica


Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG), or intractable vomiting during pregnancy, is the single most frequent cause of hospital admission in early pregnancy. HG has a major impact on maternal quality of life and has repeatedly been associated with poor pregnancy outcome such as low birth weight. Currently, women with HG are admitted to hospital for intravenous fluid replacement, without receiving specific nutritional attention. Nasogastric tube feeding is sometimes used as last resort treatment. At present no randomised trials on dietary or rehydration interventions have been performed. Small observational studies indicate that enteral tube feeding may have the ability to effectively treat dehydration and malnutrition and alleviate nausea and vomiting symptoms. We aim to evaluate the effectiveness of early enteral tube feeding in addition to standard care on nausea and vomiting symptoms and pregnancy outcomes in HG patients.

Concepts: Nutrition, Obstetrics, Dehydration, Vomiting, Nausea, Hyperemesis gravidarum, Morning sickness


OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency of adverse perinatal outcome in women with hyperemesis gravidarum and identify prognostic factors. STUDY DESIGN: This is a case-control study in which outcomes of first pregnancies were compared between 254 women with hyperemesis gravidarum treated with intravenous fluids and 308 controls. Prognostic factors were identified by comparing the clinical profile of patients with hyperemesis gravidarum with a normal and an adverse pregnancy outcome. Binary responses were analyzed using either a Chi-square or Fisher exact test and continuous responses were analyzed using a t-test. RESULTS: Women with hyperemesis gravidarum have over a 4-fold increased risk of poor outcome including preterm birth and lower birth weight (p<0.0001). Among maternal characteristics, only gestational hypertension had an influence on outcome (p<0.0001). Treatment as an outpatient and/or by alternative medicine (acupuncture/acupressure/Bowen massage) was associated with a positive outcome (p<0.0089). Poor outcomes were associated with early start of symptoms (p<0.019), and treatment with methylprednisolone (p<0.0217), promethazine (p<0.0386), and other antihistamines [diphenhydramine (Benadryl), dimenhydrinate (Gravol), doxylamine (Unisom), hydroxyzine (Vistaril/Atarax), doxylamine and pyridoxine (Diclectin/Bendectin)] (p<0.0151) independent of effectiveness. Among these medications, only the other antihistamines were prescribed independent of severity: they were effective in less than 20% of cases and were taken by almost 50% of patients with an adverse outcome. CONCLUSION: Poor outcomes are significantly greater in women with HG and are associated with gestational hypertension, early symptoms, and antihistamine use. Given these results, there is an urgent need to address the safety and effectiveness of medications containing antihistamines in women with severe nausea of pregnancy.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Childbirth, Obstetrics, Antiemetic, Nausea, Hyperemesis gravidarum, Morning sickness, Diphenhydramine


Abstract Cyclical vomiting syndrome (CVS) is a disorder that occurs mostly in children, adolescents and young adults in which episodes of nausea and vomiting occur up to six to 12 times per year. In the past decade, one specific cause of cyclical vomiting syndrome, referred to as cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS), has been described in a subset of patients who report chronic marijuana use. Of interest, almost all of these patients report compulsive bathing in hot water as part of the syndrome. In this report, we present the case of a 20-year-old female with CHS, review the issues generally encountered in CVS and discuss the known details of CHS. This is an important syndrome that needs to be considered as a potential diagnosis when patients present with cyclical vomiting.

Concepts: Time, Cannabis, Vomiting, Ondansetron, Nausea, Hyperemesis gravidarum, Morning sickness, Cyclic vomiting syndrome


BACKGROUND: Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) is a normal, commonly experienced affliction of early pregnancy. Despite this, its impact on women’s lives is not necessarily minimal. For some women, the implications of NVP are substantial with multi-faceted effects, hindering their ability to maintain usual life activities, and particularly their ability to work. In an effort to understand the effect of NVP, several researchers have developed NVP measurement tools, which enable an understanding of NVP’s effect on quality of life (QOL). PROBLEM: This paper seeks to provide a review of the literature to explore the impact of NVP on women’s quality of life, particularly their ability to maintain social and professional commitments. METHOD: Medline, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Ebsco, Science Direct, Health Source, Academic Search Premiere, Cochrane databases were extensively searched using Boolean operators with various combinations of relevant terms: nausea, vomiting, pregnancy, emesis, quality of life, QOL, NVPQOL, PUQE, SF-12, SF-36 and limited to those published from 1999 onwards. Papers were scrutinised to include those discussing the impact of normal NVP on women’s lives, particularly their QOL with careful exclusion of those addressing hyperemesis gravidarum (HG). FINDINGS: NVP has a significant effect on women’s QOL and therefore their ability to maintain day-to-day activities as well as work capacity. This has implications for the woman, her partner, her family and her employers. CONCLUSION: It is important that all maternity care workers consider the impact of NVP on the woman’s QOL and that care is given not to minimise this experience. Further research is warranted which considers ways in which women can best manage this experience in relation to social and professional commitments. Given the authors were able to identify only one Australian study in this area, published in 2000 and utilising non-NVP specific QOL measurement tools, there exists scope for additional local studies using NVP-specific QOL tools to determine the impact of QOL for Australian women and therefore Australian society.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Childbirth, Obstetrics, Quality, Vomiting, Nausea, Hyperemesis gravidarum, Morning sickness


The cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) is characterized by cyclic episodes of nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain, and occurs in young adults with long-term cannabis use. The feature of this syndrome is the relief of symptoms with hot showers. We report here six cases report.

Concepts: Chemotherapy, Greek loanwords, Symptoms, Vomiting, Gastroenteritis, Nausea, Hyperemesis gravidarum, Morning sickness


Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is a condition of severe nausea or vomiting accompanied by various complications during pregnancy. In the present study, we aimed to demonstrate the effects of HG on mother and fetus health.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Infant, Fetus, Case-control study, Vomiting, Nausea, Hyperemesis gravidarum, Morning sickness


Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is a rare and severe form of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy associated with significant costs and psychosocial impacts. The etiology of HG remains largely unknown, although maternal genetics and placental factors are suspected. Prompt recognition and treatment of HG are essential to minimize associated maternal and fetal morbidity. Diagnosis is made on the basis of typical presentation, with exclusion of other causes of severe nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Validated clinical tools are available to assess severity of symptoms and guide plans of care. Evidence to guide management of HG is limited, but many nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic interventions are available with published guidelines to inform implementation. Care of the woman with HG requires compassion and acknowledgement of individual needs and responses to interventions.

Concepts: Medicine, Pregnancy, The Canon of Medicine, Vomiting, Ondansetron, Nausea, Hyperemesis gravidarum, Morning sickness


We aimed to investigate cholecystokinin (CCK) release in pregnant women with and without hyperemesis gravidarum (HG).

Concepts: Pregnancy, Childbirth, Obstetrics, Nausea, Hyperemesis gravidarum, Morning sickness, Cholecystokinin