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Concept: Hydrogen sulfide

172

BACKGROUND: In ancient times, plants were recognized for their medicinal properties. Later, the arrival of synthetic drugs pushed it to the backstage. However, from being merely used for food, plants are now been widely explored for their therapeutic value. The current study explores the potential of skin and flesh extracts from a hard-necked Rocambole variety of purple garlic in preventing cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cell death. METHODS: Norepinephrine (NE) was used to induce hypertrophy in adult rat cardiomyocytes pretreated with garlic skin and flesh extracts. Cell death was measured as ratio of rod to round shaped cardiomyocytes. Fluorescent probes were used to measure apoptosis and oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes treated with and without extracts and NE. Pharmacological blockade of nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) were used to elucidate the mechanism of action of garlic extracts. Garlic extract samples were also tested for alliin and allicin concentrations. RESULTS: Exposure of cardiomyocytes to NE induced an increase in cell size and cell death; this increase was significantly prevented upon treatment with garlic skin and flesh extracts. Norepinephrine increased apoptosis and oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes which was prevented upon pretreatment with skin and flesh extracts; NO, and H2S blockers significantly inhibited this beneficial effect. Allicin and alliin concentration were significantly higher in garlic flesh extract when compared to the skin extract. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that both skin and flesh garlic extracts are effective in preventing NE induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cell death. Reduction in oxidative stress may also play an important role in the anti-hypertrophic and anti-apoptotic properties of garlic extracts. These beneficial effects may in part be mediated by NO and H2S.

Concepts: Nitrogen, Radical, Zinc, Sulfur, Garlic, Hydrogen sulfide, PReVENT, Allicin

151

The effects of daily dietary Bacillus subtilis (Bs), and adding L-tryptophan, fructan, or casein to fecal fermentation broths were investigated as means to reduce the production of noxious gas during manure fermentation caused by ammonia, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and 3-methylindole (skatole). Eighty swine (50.0±0.5 kg) were equally apportioned to an experimental group given Bs in daily feed, or a control group without Bs. After 6 weeks, fresh manure was collected from both groups for fermentation studies using a 3×3 orthogonal array, in which tryptophan, casein, and fructan were added at various concentrations. After fermentation, the ammonia, H2S, L-tryptophan, skatole, and microflora were measured. In both groups, L-tryptophan was the principle additive increasing skatole production, with significant correlation (r = 0.9992). L-tryptophan had no effect on the production of ammonia, H2S, or skatole in animals fed Bs. In both groups, fructan was the principle additive that reduced H2S production (r = 0.9981). Fructan and Bs significantly interacted in H2S production (p = 0.014). Casein was the principle additive affecting the concentration of ammonia, only in the control group. Casein and Bs significantly interacted in ammonia production (p = 0.039). The predominant bacteria were Bacillus spp. CWBI B1434 (26%) in the control group, and Streptococcus alactolyticus AF201899 (36%) in the experimental group. In summary, daily dietary Bs reduced ammonia production during fecal fermentation. Lessening L-tryptophan and increasing fructan in the fermentation broth reduced skatole and H2S.

Concepts: Bacteria, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Bacillus, Hydrogen sulfide, Feces, Indole, Ammonia production

40

The evidence on the health effects related to residing close to landfills is controversial. Nine landfills for municipal waste have been operating in the Lazio region (Central Italy) for several decades. We evaluated the potential health effects associated with contamination from landfills using the estimated concentration of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) as exposure.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Demography, Pollution, Hydrogen sulfide, Rome, Lazio, Marche, Umbria

31

Iron sulfide generated in situ from elemental sulfur and iron was found to be highly efficient to catalyze redox/condensation cascade reaction between 2-amino/hydroxy nitrobenzenes and activated methyl groups. This method represents a straightforward and highly atom economical approach to 2-hetaryl- benzimidazoles and benzoxazoles.

Concepts: Hydrogen, Chemical element, Sulfur, Hydrogen sulfide

28

Hydrogen sulfide ( H2 S ) is a volatile sulfur compound responsible for physiological halitosis. H2 S was also reported as having periodontal pathologic activities. Gingival crevicular epithelium is the first barrier against periodontal pathogens and their products; oral keratinocyte stem cells OKSCs play key roles in maintaining this barrier. The p53 pathway is responsible for regulating key biological events. Increased apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest of DNA repair can affect keratinocyte stem cells, having a direct impact on the architecture of the oral epithelial tissue. However, the link between H2 S , p53 activity and OKSCs has not yet been fully explored. The main objective of the present study was to explore the implications of the p53 pathway in OKSCs following exposure to H2 S .

Concepts: DNA, Bacteria, Chemical element, Skin, P53, Sulfur, Hydrogen sulfide, Sulfide

28

Biological air filtration for reduction of emissions of volatile sulfur compounds (e.g., hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide) from livestock production facilities is challenged by poor partitioning of these compounds into the aqueous biofilm or filter trickling water. In this study, Henry’s law constants of reduced volatile sulfur compounds were measured for deionized water, biotrickling filter liquids (from the first and second stages of a two-stage biotrickling filter), and NaCl solutions by a dynamic method using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) at a temperature range of 3-45°C. NaCl solutions were used to estimate salting-out constants up to an ionic strength of 0.7M in order to evaluate the effect of ionic strength on partitioning between air and biofilter liquids. Thermodynamic parameters (enthalpy and entropy of phase exchange) were obtained from the measured partition coefficients as a function of temperature. The results show that the partition coefficients of organic sulfur compounds in the biotrickling filter liquids were generally very close to the corresponding partition coefficients in deionized water. Based on the estimated ionic strength of biofilter liquids, it is assessed that salting-out effects are of no importance for these compounds. For H(2)S, a higher enthalpy of air-liquid partitioning was observed for 2nd stage filter liquid, but not for 1st stage filter liquid. In general, the results show that co-solute effects for sulfur compounds can be neglected in numerical biofilter models and that the uptake of volatile sulfur compounds in biotrickling filter liquids cannot be increased by decreasing ionic strength.

Concepts: Photosynthesis, Water, Temperature, Thermodynamics, Sulfur, Hydrogen sulfide, Natural gas, Henry's law

28

Particle size may significantly affect the speed and stability of anaerobic digestion, and matching the choice of particle size reduction equipment to digester type can thus determine the success or failure of the process. In the current research the organic fraction of municipal solid waste was processed using a combination of a shear shredder, rotary cutter and wet macerator to produce streams with different particle size distributions. The pre-processed waste was used in trials in semi-continuous ‘wet’ and ‘dry’ digesters at organic loading rate (OLR) up to 6kg volatile solids (VS) m(-3)day(-1). The results indicated that while difference in the particle size distribution did not change the specific biogas yield, the digester performance was affected. In the ‘dry’ digesters the finer particle size led to acidification and ultimately to process failure at the highest OLR. In ‘wet’ digestion a fine particle size led to severe foaming and the process could not be operated above 5kgVSm(-3)day(-1). Although the trial was not designed as a direct comparison between ‘wet’ and ‘dry’ digestion, the specific biogas yield of the ‘dry’ digesters was 90% of that produced by ‘wet’ digesters fed on the same waste at the same OLR.

Concepts: Anaerobic digestion, Waste management, Particle size distribution, Biogas, Sintex Digester, Hydrogen sulfide

27

Recently, silver nanowires (AgNWs) have attracted considerable interest for their potential applications in flexible transparent conductive films (TCFs). One challenge for commercialization of AgNW-based TCF is low conductivity and stability caused by weak adhesion forces between AgNWs and substrate. Here, we report a highly bendable, conductive and transparent silver nanowire (AgNW) film, which was consisted of the underlying poly(diallyldimethyl-ammonium chloride) (PDDA) and AgNW composite bottom layer and a top layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled graphene oxide (GO) and PDDA over coating layer (OCL). We demonstrated that PDDA could increase the adhesion between AgNW and substrate to form a uniform AgNW network, and could also serve to improve the stability of GO OCL. Hence a highly bendable, conductive, and transparent AgNW-PDDA-GO composite TCF on a poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate with Rs ≈ 10 Ω/sq and T ≈ 91% could be made by an all solution processable method under room temperature. In addition, our AgNW-PDDA-GO composite TCF is stable without degradation after the exposure to H2S gas or sonication.

Concepts: Nanowire, Carbon nanotube, Graphene, Solar cell, Hydrogen sulfide, Electrical conductivity, Film, Adhesion

27

High levels of homocysteine (Hcy), known as hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) are associated with neurovascular diseases. H2S, a metabolite of Hcy, has a potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity; however, the effect of H2S has not been explored in Hcy (IC) induced neurodegeneration and neurovascular dysfunction in mice. Therefore, the present study was designed to explore the neuroprotective role of H2S on Hcy induced neurodegeneration and neurovascular dysfunction. To test this hypothesis we employed wild type (WT) males ages 8-10 weeks, WT+ artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF), WT+ Hcy (0.5μmol/μl) intracerebral injection (I.C., one time only prior to NaHS treatment), WT+Hcy +NaHS (sodium hydrogen sulfide, precursor of H2S, 30 μmol/kg, body weight). NaHS was injected intra-peritoneally (I.P.) once daily for the period of 7 days after the Hcy (IC) injection. Hcy treatment significantly increased MDA, nitrite level, acetylcholinestrase activity, TNFα, IL1β, GFAP, iNOS, eNOS and decreased glutathione level indicating oxidative-nitrosative stress and neuroinflammation as compared to control and aCSF treated groups. Further, increased expression of NSE, S100B and decreased expression of (PSD95, SAP97) synaptic protein indicated neurodegeneration. Brain sections of Hcy treated mice showed damage in the cortical area and periventricular cells. TUNEL positive cells and Fluro Jade-C staining indicated apoptosis and neurodegeneration. The increased expression of MMP9, MMP2 and decreased expression of TIMP-1, TIMP-2, tight junction proteins (ZO1, Occuldin) in Hcy treated group indicate neurovascular remodeling. Interestingly, NaHS treatment significantly attenuated Hcy induced oxidative stress, memory deficit, neurodegeneration, neuroinflammation and cerebrovascular remodeling. The results indicate that H2S is effective in providing protection against neurodegeneration and neurovascular dysfunction.

Concepts: Gene, Brain, Antioxidant, Oxidative stress, Glutathione, Hydrogen sulfide, Sodium hydrosulfide, Sodium sulfide

27

Dibenzothiophene (DBT) and its derivatives are typical sulfur compounds found in fossil fuels. These compounds show resistance to the hydrodesulfurization treatment that is commonly used in industry. Dibenzothiophene monooxygenase (DszC) is responsible for the oxidation of DBT, which is the first and the rate-limiting step in the DBT enzymatic desulfurization 4S pathway. In this study, the crystal structure of DszC from Rhodococcus erythropolis DS-3 is reported. The crystal of native DszC belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 96.16, b = 96.27, c = 98.56 Å, α = 81.03, β = 67.57, γ = 85.84°. To determine the phase, SAD X-ray diffraction data were collected from a SeMet-derivative DszC crystal, which also belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 95.379, b = 95.167, c = 94.891 Å, α = 87.046, β = 70.536, γ = 79.738°. Further structural analysis of DszC is in progress.

Concepts: Crystal, Crystallography, Carbon, Sulfur, X-ray crystallography, Hydrogen sulfide, Hydrodesulfurization, Claus process