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Concept: Humulus


Flavonoids have attracted considerable attention in relation to their effects upon health. 8-Prenylnaringenin (8-PN) is found in the common hop (Humulus lupulus) and assumed to be responsible for the health impact of beer consumption. We wanted to clarify the effects of prenylation on the physiological functions of dietary flavonoids by comparing the effects of 8-PN with that of intact naringenin in the prevention of disuse muscle atrophy using a model of denervation in mice. Consumption of 8-PN (but not naringenin) prevented loss of weight in the gastrocnemius muscle further supported by the lack of induction of the protein content of a key ubiquitin ligase involved in muscle atrophy, atrogin-1, and by the activation of Akt phosphorylation. 8-PN content in the gastrocnemius muscle was tenfold higher than that of naringenin. These results suggested that, compared with naringenin, 8-PN was effectively concentrated into skeletal muscle to exert its preventive effects upon disuse muscle atrophy. It is likely that prenylation generates novel functions for 8-PN by enhancing its accumulation into muscle tissue through dietary intake.

Concepts: Nutrition, Muscle, Posttranslational modification, Muscle atrophy, Atrophy, Humulus lupulus, Hops, Humulus


Humulus lupulus (hop plant) has long been used in traditional medicine as a sedative and antimicrobial agent. More recently, attention has been devoted to the phytoestrogenic activity of the plant extracts as well as to the anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive properties of the prenylated chalcones present. In this study, an Italian sample of H. lupulus cv. “Cascade” has been investigated and three new compounds [4-hydroxycolupulone (6), humudifucol (7) and cascadone (8)] have been purified and identified by means of NMR spectroscopy along with four known metabolites. Notably, humudifucol (7) is the first prenylated dimeric phlorotannin discovered in nature. Because structurally related phloroglucinols from natural sources were found previously to inhibit microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase (mPGES)-1 and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), the isolated compounds were evaluated for their bioactivity against these pro-inflammatory target proteins. The prenylated chalcone xanthohumol inhibited both enzymes at low μM concentrations.

Concepts: Inflammation, Nature, Antimicrobial, Chalcone, Humulus lupulus, Hops, Humulus, Cannabaceae


Using a binge-drinking mouse model, we aimed to determine whether hops (Humulus lupulus) in beer is involved in the less damaging effects of acute beer consumption on the liver in comparison with ethanol.

Concepts: Animal testing, Liver, Mouse, Beer, Humulus lupulus, Hops, Humulus, Cannabaceae


A need exists for a reliable method for determining the geographical and botanical origin of hops. For this study three sets of samples were collected: the first set comprised five German samples, the second set comprised samples of hops from ten of the world’s major hop growing regions while the third comprised the four main Slovenian. The samples were analyzed using Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) to obtain δ13C, δ15N and δ34S values. The δ15N (2.2 ‰ to 8.4 ‰) and δ34S (0.7 ‰ to 12.3 ‰) values were the most discriminating parameters for classifying hop according to geographical origin. ANOVA showed distinct groupings for eight out of the ten hop-growing regions. Although it was not possible to distinguish the geographical origin of hops based on δ13C (-28.9 ‰ to -24.7 ‰), in the case of botanical origin, δ13C values proved to be the most discriminative albeit with limited success.

Concepts: Mass spectrometry, Isotope, Isotopes, Humulus lupulus, Hops, Humulus, Isotope ratio mass spectrometry, Cannabaceae


To investigate whether treatment with xanthohumol (XN), the principal prenylated chalconoid from Humulus lupulus (hops), is protective in a mouse model of light-induced retinal degeneration (LIRD).

Concepts: Protection, Humulus lupulus, Hops, Humulus, Cannabaceae


Women seeking alternatives to hormone replacement therapy for menopausal symptoms often try botanical dietary supplements containing extracts of hops (Humulus lupulus L.). Hops contain 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN), a potent phytoestrogen, the related flavanones 6-prenylnaringenin (6-PN) and isoxanthohumol (IX), and the prenylated chalcone xanthohumol (XN).

Concepts: Hormone, Menopause, Estrogen, Humulus lupulus, Hops, Humulus, Cannabaceae, Humulus japonicus


Aging is associated with a deregulation of biological systems that lead to an increase in oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis, among other effects. Xanthohumol is the main preylated chalcone present in hops (Humulus lupulus L.) whose antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive properties have been shown in recent years. In the present study, the possible protective effects of xanthohumol on liver alterations associated with aging were evaluated.

Concepts: Oxidative stress, Oxidative phosphorylation, Reactive oxygen species, Paracetamol, Humulus lupulus, Hops, Humulus, Cannabaceae


Prenylated chalcones and flavonoids from hop (Humulus lupulus L.), such as 6-prenylnaringenin (6-PN) and 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN), are investigated for their health-beneficial and anticancer activities. We thus compared the oral bioavailability and safety of 6-PN and 8-PN in healthy young women and men and investigated their effects on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC).

Concepts: Crossover study, PBMC, Humulus lupulus, Hops, Humulus, Structural isomer, Cannabaceae, Humulus japonicus


Hops imparts flavor to beer, and its volatile components characterize the various hops varieties and qualities. The volatile components of hops are used for distinguishing between its various varieties and qualities. Fingerprinting, especially flavor fingerprinting, is often used to identify “flavor products”, since inconsistencies in the description of flavor may lead to incorrect definition of beer quality. Compared to flavor fingerprinting, volatile fingerprinting is simpler and easier.

Concepts: Statistics, Quality, Multivariate statistics, Standard deviation, Humulus lupulus, Hops, Humulus, Cannabaceae


Results of in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that consumption of beer is less harmful for the liver than consumption of spirits. It also has been suggested that secondary plant compounds derived from hops such as xanthohumol or iso-α-acids may have beneficial effects on the development of liver diseases of various etiologies. The aim of this study was to determine whether iso-α-acids consumed in doses achieved by “normal” beer consumption have beneficial effects on health.

Concepts: Medicine, Liver, Suggestion, Beer, Humulus lupulus, Hops, Humulus, Cannabaceae