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Concept: Household income in the United States

314

 To estimate differences in annual income of physicians in the United States by race and sex adjusted for characteristics of physicians and practices.

Concepts: United States, Poverty in the United States, U.S. state, Race, White American, Household income in the United States, European American, Indigenous peoples of the Americas

252

The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers' income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the first ex post analysis of food security impacts of GM crops at the micro level. We use comprehensive panel data collected over several years from farm households in India, where insect-resistant GM cotton has been widely adopted. Controlling for other factors, the adoption of GM cotton has significantly improved calorie consumption and dietary quality, resulting from increased family incomes. This technology has reduced food insecurity by 15-20% among cotton-producing households. GM crops alone will not solve the hunger problem, but they can be an important component in a broader food security strategy.

Concepts: Agriculture, Food, Malnutrition, Food security, Household income in the United States, Famine, Genetically modified food, Food industry

171

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is known to disproportionately affect the most economically disadvantaged strata of society. Many studies have assessed the association between poverty and TB, but only a few have assessed the direct financial burden TB treatment and care can place on households. Patient costs can be particularly burdensome for TB-affected households in sub-Saharan Africa where poverty levels are high; these costs include the direct costs of medical and non-medical expenditures and the indirect costs of time utilizing healthcare or lost wages. In order to comprehensively assess the existing evidence on the costs that TB patients incur, we undertook a systematic review of the literature. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, Social Science Citation Index, EconLit, Dissertation Abstracts, CINAHL, and Sociological Abstracts databases were searched, and 5,114 articles were identified. Articles were included in the final review if they contained a quantitative measure of direct or indirect patient costs for treatment or care for pulmonary TB in sub-Saharan Africa and were published from January 1, 1994 to Dec 31, 2010. Cost data were extracted from each study and converted to 2010 international dollars (I$). RESULTS: Thirty articles met all of the inclusion criteria. Twenty-one studies reported both direct and indirect costs; eight studies reported only direct costs and one study reported only indirect costs. Depending on type of costs, costs varied from less than I$1 to almost I$600 or from a small fraction of mean monthly income for average annual income earners to over 10 times the annual income that the average person in the income-poorest 20% of the population earns. Out of the eleven types of TB patient costs identified in this review, the costs for hospitalization, medication, transportation, and care in the private sector were largest. CONCLUSION: TB patients and households in sub-Saharan Africa often incurred high costs when utilizing TB treatment and care, both within and outside of Directly Observed Therapy Short-course (DOTS) programs. It is likely that for many households, TB treatment and care-related costs were “catastrophic” because the TB patient costs commonly amounted to 10% or more of per-capita incomes in the countries where the primary studies included in this review were conducted. Our results suggest that policies to decrease direct and indirect TB patient costs are urgently needed to prevent poverty due to TB treatment and care for those affected by the disease.

Concepts: Africa, Tuberculosis, Cost, Science Citation Index, Household income in the United States, Citation index, Social Sciences Citation Index

138

Most studies have investigated the association between parental socioeconomic factors and dental caries in children based on educational and income levels; studies focusing on parental occupation, however, have been relatively limited. This cross-sectional study examined the associations between parental occupations and levels of education and household income and the prevalence of dental caries in Japanese children aged 3 years.

Concepts: Education, The Association, Lactic acid, Dental caries, Household income in the United States

133

Peyronie’s disease (PD) is a connective tissue disorder which can result in penile deformity. The prevalence of diagnosed PD in the United States (US) has been estimated to be 0.5% in adult males, but there is limited additional information comparing definitive and probable PD cases. We conducted a population-based survey to assess PD prevalence using a convenience-sample of adult men participating in the ResearchNow general population panel. Respondents were categorized according to PD status (definitive, probable, no PD) and segmented by US geographic region, education, and income levels. Of the 7,711 respondents, 57 (0.7%) had definitive PD while 850 (11.0%) had probable PD. Using univariate logistic regression modeling, older age (18-24 vs 24+) (OR = 0.721; 95% CI = 0.570,0.913), Midwest/Northeast/West geographic region (South vs Midwest/Northeast/West) (OR = 0.747; 95% CI = 0.646,0.864), and higher income level (<25K vs 25K+) (OR = 0.820; 95% CI = 0.673,0.997) were each significantly associated with reduced odds of having a definitive/probable PD diagnosis compared with no PD diagnosis. When all three variables were entered in a stepwise multivariable logistic regression, only age (OR = 0.642; 95% CI = 0.497, 0.828) and region (OR = 0.752; 95% CI = 0.647, 0.872) remained significant. This study is the first to report PD prevalence by geographic region and income, and it advocates that the prevalence of PD in the US may be higher than previously cited. Further, given the large discrepancy between definitive PD cases diagnosed by a physician and probable cases not diagnosed by a physician, much more needs to be done to raise awareness of this disease.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Logistic regression, Blood, United States, Geography, Peyronie's disease, Household income in the United States, Regional geography

106

We report the largest experience, to our knowledge, of home cardiorespiratory monitoring in 47,495 newborns using the novel Owlet Smart Sock (OSS) technology (October 2015 to May 2017). On average, 47,495 newborns were monitored for 6 months, 4.5 d/wk, 9.9 h/d. Continuous readings of oxygen saturation and heart rate were obtained from 39,626 full-term newborns. OSS users were likely first-time parents in their 30s with at least a college degree; 37% had a healthcare professional in the family; and 28% were at or below median income level per the US Census Bureau. “Peace of mind” was the reason to own an OSS in 75%, and 82% of parents followed Safe Sleep Guidelines. A total of 94% of parents reported a better quality of sleep. The fast and continuous pace of device adoption and reported experience suggest excellent parental acceptance of the OSS. Prospective studies are warranted to further evaluate its applications in the high-risk newborn population.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Population, Parent, Household income in the United States, Infancy, United States Census, United States Census Bureau, Census

88

In four large, nationally representative surveys (N = 11.2 million), American adolescents and emerging adults in the 2010s (Millennials) were significantly less religious than previous generations (Boomers, Generation X) at the same age. The data are from the Monitoring the Future studies of 12th graders (1976-2013), 8th and 10th graders (1991-2013), and the American Freshman survey of entering college students (1966-2014). Although the majority of adolescents and emerging adults are still religiously involved, twice as many 12th graders and college students, and 20%-40% more 8th and 10th graders, never attend religious services. Twice as many 12th graders and entering college students in the 2010s (vs. the 1960s-70s) give their religious affiliation as “none,” as do 40%-50% more 8th and 10th graders. Recent birth cohorts report less approval of religious organizations, are less likely to say that religion is important in their lives, report being less spiritual, and spend less time praying or meditating. Thus, declines in religious orientation reach beyond affiliation to religious participation and religiosity, suggesting a movement toward secularism among a growing minority. The declines are larger among girls, Whites, lower-SES individuals, and in the Northeastern U.S., very small among Blacks, and non-existent among political conservatives. Religious affiliation is lower in years with more income inequality, higher median family income, higher materialism, more positive self-views, and lower social support. Overall, these results suggest that the lower religious orientation of Millennials is due to time period or generation, and not to age.

Concepts: Demographics, Religion, Meditation, Household income in the United States, Spirituality, Generation Y, Generation, Generation X

75

We estimate models of consumer food waste awareness and attitudes using responses from a national survey of U.S. residents. Our models are interpreted through the lens of several theories that describe how pro-social behaviors relate to awareness, attitudes and opinions. Our analysis of patterns among respondents' food waste attitudes yields a model with three principal components: one that represents perceived practical benefits households may lose if food waste were reduced, one that represents the guilt associated with food waste, and one that represents whether households feel they could be doing more to reduce food waste. We find our respondents express significant agreement that some perceived practical benefits are ascribed to throwing away uneaten food, e.g., nearly 70% of respondents agree that throwing away food after the package date has passed reduces the odds of foodborne illness, while nearly 60% agree that some food waste is necessary to ensure meals taste fresh. We identify that these attitudinal responses significantly load onto a single principal component that may represent a key attitudinal construct useful for policy guidance. Further, multivariate regression analysis reveals a significant positive association between the strength of this component and household income, suggesting that higher income households most strongly agree with statements that link throwing away uneaten food to perceived private benefits.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Statistics, Multivariate statistics, Household, Linear discriminant analysis, Household income in the United States, Food safety, Income quintiles

71

Among non-clinical samples, autistic traits correlate with a range of educational and social outcomes. However, previous work has not investigated the relationship between autistic traits and income, a key determinant of socio-economic status and well-being. In five studies (total N = 2491), we recruited participants without a diagnosis of autism from the general US population via an online platform and administered the short-form Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) as well as asked a range of demographic questions. We found a negative association between AQ and household income, which remained robust after controlling for age, gender, education, employment status, ethnicity, and socially desirable responding. The effect was primarily driven by the participant’s own income and was mainly due to the social subscale of the AQ. These results provide initial evidence that income is negatively related to autistic traits among the general population, with potential implications for a range of social, psychological, and health outcomes.

Concepts: Demography, Sociology, Autism, Pervasive developmental disorder, Asperger syndrome, Autism spectrum, PDD-NOS, Household income in the United States

70

Social science research finds that the only group to have experienced real economic gains over the past four decades is the top 20 percent of the income distribution. This finding, along with greater awareness of growing inequality, has renewed interest in mobility research that identifies how individuals and their progeny move into and out of upper versus lower income categories. In this study a new mobility methodology is proposed using life course concepts and life table statistical techniques. Panel data from a prospective national sample of the U.S. population age 25 to 60 are analyzed to estimate the extent of mobility associated with top percentiles in the income distribution. Empirical results suggest high mobility associated with top-level income. For example, 11 percent of the population is found to occupy the top one percentile for one or more years between the ages of 25 and 60. The study findings suggest that many experience short-term and/or intermittent mobility into top-level income, versus a smaller set that persist within top-level income over many consecutive years. Implications of the findings are discussed in terms of inequality buffering, opportunity versus insecurity, and the demographics of income inequality.

Concepts: Statistics, Demography, Economics, Economic inequality, Household income in the United States, Distribution of wealth, Lorenz curve, Income inequality metrics