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Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Hospitality

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Firearm injuries disproportionately affect young, male, non-White populations, causing substantial individual and societal burden. Annual costs for hospitalized firearm injuries have not been widely described, as most previous cost studies have focused on lifetime costs. We examined a nationally-representative database of hospitalizations in the US to estimate per-hospital and overall hospital costs for firearm injuries by intent, type of weapon, and payer source.

Concepts: Hospital, United States, Surgery, Poverty in the United States, U.S. state, Hospitality

45

There has been a rapid increase in the rate of pediatric opioid-related hospitalizations. It is unknown how this increase has impacted the use of pediatric critical care. Our objective in this study was to assess the trends in pediatric hospitalization for opioid ingestions in a cohort of US children’s hospitals and, specifically, to evaluate the impact on pediatric critical care resource use.

Concepts: Hospital, Physician, Impact event, Children's hospital, Hospitality, Resources

19

National heart failure (HF) hospitalization rates have not been appropriately age standardized by sex or race/ethnicity. Reporting hospital utilization trends by subgroup is important for monitoring population health and developing interventions to eliminate disparities.

Concepts: Health insurance, Health, Health disparities, Hospital, Cardiology, Demography, Pharmacy, Hospitality

14

Rationale Characterizing the dynamic nature of post-hospital risk in COPD is needed to provide counseling and plan clinical services. Objectives To analyze risk of readmission and death among Medicare beneficiaries >=65 years following discharge for COPD, and to determine the association between ventilator support and risk trajectory. Methods We computed daily absolute risks of hospital readmission and death for one year after discharge for COPD, stratified by ventilator support. We determined the time required for risks to decline 50% from maximum daily values after discharge; and for daily risks to plateau. We compared risks with those found in the general elderly population. Measurements and Main Results Among 2,340,637 hospitalizations, the readmission rate at 1 year was 64.2%, including 63.5%, 66.0% and 64.1% among those receiving invasive, noninvasive and no ventilation. Among 1,283,069 hospitalizations, mortality at 1 year was 26.2%, including 45.7%, 41.8% and 24.4% among those same groups. Daily risk of readmission declined by 50% within 28, 39 and 43 days, and plateaued in 46, 54, and 61 days among those receiving invasive, noninvasive and no ventilation, respectively. Risk of death declined by 50% by 3, 4 and 17 days, and plateaued by 21, 18, and 24 days. Risks of hospitalization and death were significantly higher following discharge for COPD compared to the general Medicare population. Conclusions Discharge from hospital is associated with prolonged risks of readmission and death that vary with need for ventilator support. Interventions limited to the first month after discharge may be insufficient to improve longitudinal outcomes.

Concepts: Hospital, Risk, Uncertainty, Decline, Trajectory, Hospitality

7

Building a culture of health in hospitals means more than participating in community partnerships. It also requires an enhanced capacity to recognize and respond to disparities in utilization patterns across populations. We identified all pediatric hospitalizations at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, in the period 2011-16. Each hospitalized child’s address was geocoded, allowing us to calculate inpatient bed-day rates for each census tract in Hamilton County, Ohio, across all causes and for specific conditions and pediatric subspecialties. We then divided the census tracts into quintiles based on their underlying rates of child poverty and calculated bed-day rates per quintile. Poorer communities disproportionately bore the burden of pediatric hospital days. If children from all of the county’s census tracts spent the same amount of time in the hospital each year as those from the most affluent tracts, approximately twenty-two child-years of hospitalization time would be prevented. Of particular note were “hot spots” in high-poverty census tracts neighboring the hospital, where bed-day rates were more than double the county average. Hospitals that address disparities would benefit from a more comprehensive understanding of the culture of health-a culture that is more cohesive inside the hospital and builds bridges into the community.

Concepts: Hospital, Poverty, Physician, Pediatrics, Community, Psychiatric hospital, Children's hospital, Hospitality

7

Hospitalization is associated with microbiome perturbation-or dysbiosis-and this perturbation is more severe in patients treated with antimicrobials. We evaluated whether hospitalizations known to be associated with periods of microbiome perturbation are associated with increased risk of severe sepsis after hospital discharge.

Concepts: Patient, Hospital, Physician, Sepsis, Hospitality

5

Exposure to pollen can contribute to increased hospital admissions for asthma exacerbation. This study applied an ecological time series analysis to examine associations between atmospheric concentrations of different pollen types and the risk of hospitalization for asthma in London from 2005 to 2011. The analysis examined short-term associations between daily pollen counts and hospital admissions in the presence of seasonal and long-term patterns, and allowed for time lags between exposure and admission. Models were adjusted for temperature, precipitation, humidity, day of week, and air pollutants. Analyses revealed an association between daily counts (continuous) of grass pollen and adult hospital admissions for asthma in London, with a 4-5-day lag. When grass pollen concentrations were categorized into Met Office pollen ‘alert’ levels, ‘very high’ days (vs. ‘low’) were associated with increased admissions 2-5┬ádays later, peaking at an incidence rate ratio of 1.46 (95%, CI 1.20-1.78) at 3┬ádays. Increased admissions were also associated with ‘high’ versus ‘low’ pollen days at a 3-day lag. Results from tree pollen models were inconclusive and likely to have been affected by the shorter pollen seasons and consequent limited number of observation days with higher tree pollen concentrations. Future reductions in asthma hospitalizations may be achieved by better understanding of environmental risks, informing improved alert systems and supporting patients to take preventive measures.

Concepts: Time, Asthma, Patient, Hospital, Term, Time series, Emergency department, Hospitality

4

Although patient mobility has increased over the world, in Europe there is a lack of empirical studies. The aim of the study was to compare foreign non-resident patients versus domestic patients for the particular Catalan case, focusing on patient characteristics, hospitalisation costs and differences in costs depending on the typology of the hospital they are treated. We used data from the 2012 Minimum Basic Data Set-Acute Care hospitals (CMBD-HA) in Catalonia. We matched two case-control groups: first, foreign non-resident patients versus domestic patients and, second, foreign non-resident patients treated by Regional Public Hospitals versus other type of hospitals. Hospitalisation costs were modelled using a GLM Gamma with a log-link. Our results show that foreign non-resident patients were significantly less costly than domestic patients (12% cheaper). Our findings also suggested differences in the characteristics of foreign non-resident patients using Regional Public Hospitals or other kinds of hospitals although we did not observe significant differences in the healthcare costs. Nevertheless, women, 15-24 and 35-44 years old patients and the days of stay were less costly in Regional Public Hospitals. In general, acute hospitalizations of foreign non-resident patients while they are on holiday cost substantially less than domestic patients. The typology of hospital is not found to be a relevant factor influencing costs.

Concepts: Scientific method, Patient, Hospital, Physician, Al-Andalus, Spain, Hospitality, Public hospital

3

There is little evidence on the impact of malaria control on the health system, particularly at the facility level. Using retrospective, longitudinal facility-level and patient record data from two hospitals in Zambia, we report a pre-post comparison of hospital admissions and outpatient visits for malaria and estimated costs incurred for malaria admissions before and after malaria control scale-up. The results show a substantial reduction in inpatient admissions and outpatient visits for malaria at both hospitals after the scale-up, and malaria cases accounted for a smaller proportion of total hospital visits over time. Hospital spending on malaria admissions also decreased. In one hospital, malaria accounted for 11% of total hospital spending before large-scale malaria control compared with < 1% after malaria control. The findings demonstrate that facility-level resources are freed up as malaria is controlled, potentially making these resources available for other diseases and conditions.

Concepts: Comparison, Patient, Malaria, Hospital, Comparisons, Control, Clinic, Hospitality

2

Hospitalizations are not isolated events in COPD patients. A significant percentage of patients are readmitted during the first month after their discharge. The aim of this study was to elucidate changes in the incidence, comorbidity, length of hospital stay (LOHS), costs and in-hospital mortality (IHM) of patients readmitted following an initial hospitalization by acute exacerbation of COPD (AE-COPD).

Concepts: Patient, Hospital, Medical statistics, Physician, Al-Andalus, Hospitality, Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease