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Concept: Hormonal therapy


Gold nanoparticles have attracted significant interest in cancer diagnosis and treatment. Herein, we evaluated the theranostic potential of dithiolated diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTDTPA) conjugated AuNPs (Au@DTDTPA) for CT-contrast enhancement and radiosensitization in prostate cancer.

Concepts: Cancer, Metastasis, Nanoparticle, Proton therapy, Prostate cancer, Radiation therapy, Gold, Hormonal therapy


Background Robust data on patient-reported outcome measures comparing treatments for clinically localized prostate cancer are lacking. We investigated the effects of active monitoring, radical prostatectomy, and radical radiotherapy with hormones on patient-reported outcomes. Methods We compared patient-reported outcomes among 1643 men in the Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) trial who completed questionnaires before diagnosis, at 6 and 12 months after randomization, and annually thereafter. Patients completed validated measures that assessed urinary, bowel, and sexual function and specific effects on quality of life, anxiety and depression, and general health. Cancer-related quality of life was assessed at 5 years. Complete 6-year data were analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle. Results The rate of questionnaire completion during follow-up was higher than 85% for most measures. Of the three treatments, prostatectomy had the greatest negative effect on sexual function and urinary continence, and although there was some recovery, these outcomes remained worse in the prostatectomy group than in the other groups throughout the trial. The negative effect of radiotherapy on sexual function was greatest at 6 months, but sexual function then recovered somewhat and was stable thereafter; radiotherapy had little effect on urinary continence. Sexual and urinary function declined gradually in the active-monitoring group. Bowel function was worse in the radiotherapy group at 6 months than in the other groups but then recovered somewhat, except for the increasing frequency of bloody stools; bowel function was unchanged in the other groups. Urinary voiding and nocturia were worse in the radiotherapy group at 6 months but then mostly recovered and were similar to the other groups after 12 months. Effects on quality of life mirrored the reported changes in function. No significant differences were observed among the groups in measures of anxiety, depression, or general health-related or cancer-related quality of life. Conclusions In this analysis of patient-reported outcomes after treatment for localized prostate cancer, patterns of severity, recovery, and decline in urinary, bowel, and sexual function and associated quality of life differed among the three groups. (Funded by the U.K. National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment Program; ProtecT Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN20141297 ; number, NCT02044172 .).

Concepts: Cancer, Oncology, Prostate cancer, Urology, Radiation therapy, Benign prostatic hyperplasia, Prostate, Hormonal therapy


Background Salvage radiation therapy is often necessary in men who have undergone radical prostatectomy and have evidence of prostate-cancer recurrence signaled by a persistently or recurrently elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. Whether antiandrogen therapy with radiation therapy will further improve cancer control and prolong overall survival is unknown. Methods In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted from 1998 through 2003, we assigned 760 eligible patients who had undergone prostatectomy with a lymphadenectomy and had disease, as assessed on pathological testing, with a tumor stage of T2 (confined to the prostate but with a positive surgical margin) or T3 (with histologic extension beyond the prostatic capsule), no nodal involvement, and a detectable PSA level of 0.2 to 4.0 ng per milliliter to undergo radiation therapy and receive either antiandrogen therapy (24 months of bicalutamide at a dose of 150 mg daily) or daily placebo tablets during and after radiation therapy. The primary end point was the rate of overall survival. Results The median follow-up among the surviving patients was 13 years. The actuarial rate of overall survival at 12 years was 76.3% in the bicalutamide group, as compared with 71.3% in the placebo group (hazard ratio for death, 0.77; 95% confidence interval, 0.59 to 0.99; P=0.04). The 12-year incidence of death from prostate cancer, as assessed by means of central review, was 5.8% in the bicalutamide group, as compared with 13.4% in the placebo group (P<0.001). The cumulative incidence of metastatic prostate cancer at 12 years was 14.5% in the bicalutamide group, as compared with 23.0% in the placebo group (P=0.005). The incidence of late adverse events associated with radiation therapy was similar in the two groups. Gynecomastia was recorded in 69.7% of the patients in the bicalutamide group, as compared with 10.9% of those in the placebo group (P<0.001). Conclusions The addition of 24 months of antiandrogen therapy with daily bicalutamide to salvage radiation therapy resulted in significantly higher rates of long-term overall survival and lower incidences of metastatic prostate cancer and death from prostate cancer than radiation therapy plus placebo. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute and AstraZeneca; RTOG 9601 number, NCT00002874 .).

Concepts: Cancer, Metastasis, Prostate cancer, Urology, Radiation therapy, Testosterone, Prostate, Hormonal therapy


To date, there is no Level 1 evidence comparing the efficacy of radical prostatectomy and radiotherapy for patients with clinically-localized prostate cancer.

Concepts: Cancer, Metastasis, Systematic review, Prostate cancer, Urology, Radiation therapy, Benign prostatic hyperplasia, Hormonal therapy



Postoperative management of prostate cancer with lymph node involvement (LNI) is controversial. Retrospective evidence supports the selective use of radiotherapy (RT) after extended pelvic lymph node dissection. It is unclear whether this is generalizable to practice in the United States, where extended dissection is uncommon. The authors identified patients with LNI who potentially could derive a survival benefit with adjuvant RT plus androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT).

Concepts: Cancer, Metastasis, Lymph node, United States, Prostate cancer, Radiation therapy, Hormonal therapy, Lymphadenectomy



PURPOSE: To evaluate long-term disease control and chronic toxicities observed in patients treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for clinically localized prostate cancer. METHODS/MATERIALS: 302 patients with localized prostate cancer treated with image guided IMRT between 7/2000 and 5/2005 were retrospectively analyzed. Risk groups (low, intermediate, and high) were designated based on NCCN guidelines. Biochemical control was based on the ASTRO (Phoenix) consensus definition. Chronic toxicity was measured both at peak symptoms and at last visit. Toxicity was scored based on CTCAE v.4. RESULTS: The median dose delivered was 75.6 Gy (range 70.2-77.4 Gy) and 35.4% of patients received androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Patients were followed until death or from 6-138 months (median 91 months) in those alive at last evaluation. Local and distant recurrence rates were 5% and 8.6%, respectively. At 9 years, biochemical control rates was 77.4% for low risk, 69.6% for intermediate risk, and 53.3% for high-risk patients (log rank p= 0.05). On multivariate analysis, T-stage and PSA group were prognostic for biochemical control. At last follow-up, only 0%/0.7% had persistent grade = 3 GI/GU toxicity. High risk group was associated with higher distant metastasis rate (p=0.02) and death from prostate cancer (p=0.0012). CONCLUSIONS: This study represents one of the longest experiences with IMRT for prostate cancer. With a median follow-up of 91 months, IMRT resulted in durable biochemical control rates with very low chronic toxicity.

Concepts: Cancer, Ionizing radiation, Metastasis, Oncology, Chemotherapy, Prostate cancer, Radiation therapy, Hormonal therapy


Conventional radiotherapy (C-RT) treatment schedules for patients with prostate cancer typically require 40 to 45 treatments that take place from > 8 to 9 weeks. Preclinical and clinical research suggest that hypofractionation-fewer treatments but at a higher dose per treatment-may produce similar outcomes. This trial was designed to assess whether the efficacy of a hypofractionated radiotherapy (H-RT) treatment schedule is no worse than a C-RT schedule in men with low-risk prostate cancer.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Cancer, Metastasis, Proton therapy, Prostate cancer, Radiation therapy, Screening, Hormonal therapy


Several surrogates for prostate cancer-specific mortality satisfying the Prentice criteria exist, but whether these are surrogates for all-cause mortality, and how their performance compares, is unknown.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Clinical trial, Cancer, Chemotherapy, Prostate cancer, Radiation therapy, Androgen, Hormonal therapy