Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Horizon


Light is a major cue for nearly all life on Earth. However, most of our knowledge concerning the importance of light is based on organisms' response to light during daytime, including the dusk and dawn phase. When it is dark, light is most often considered as pollution, with increasing appreciation of its negative ecological effects. Using an Autonomous Surface Vehicle fitted with a hyperspectral irradiance sensor and an acoustic profiler, we detected and quantified the behavior of zooplankton in an unpolluted light environment in the high Arctic polar night and compared the results with that from a light-polluted environment close to our research vessels. First, in environments free of light pollution, the zooplankton community is intimately connected to the ambient light regime and performs synchronized diel vertical migrations in the upper 30 m despite the sun never rising above the horizon. Second, the vast majority of the pelagic community exhibits a strong light-escape response in the presence of artificial light, observed down to 100 m. We conclude that artificial light from traditional sampling platforms affects the zooplankton community to a degree where it is impossible to examine its abundance and natural rhythms within the upper 100 m. This study underscores the need to adjust sampling platforms, particularly in dim-light conditions, to capture relevant physical and biological data for ecological studies. It also highlights a previously unchartered susceptibility to light pollution in a region destined to see significant changes in light climate due to a reduced ice cover and an increased anthropogenic activity.

Concepts: Biology, Life, Environment, Light, Ecology, Sun, Lighting, Horizon



Dialysis is a life-sustaining treatment for patients with end-stage kidney disease. In a different context, for many patients this treatment is the focal point around which their life revolves, not only due to the time spent travelling to and from treatment sessions and the time dedicated to the dialysis treatment itself, but also due to the accompanying dietary and fluid restrictions and medication burden. Wearable and portable dialysis devices could potentially improve patient quality of life by allowing patients to continue with their daily activities of life while undergoing dialysis, as well as by loosening-or removing entirely-dietary and fluid restrictions and reducing pill burden. Advances in nanotechnology manufacturing coupled with advances in electronics and miniaturisation have allowed a new generation of wearable and portable dialysis devices to be developed which are now undergoing large animal and patient clinical trials. We are therefore potentially at a new dawn in the treatment of dialysis patients with the first generation of wearable and portable dialysis devices, which may well revolutionise the treatment and quality of life for patients with end-stage kidney disease.

Concepts: Renal failure, Chronic kidney disease, Kidney, Nephrology, Erythropoietin, Dialysis, Death, Horizon


We wanted the best, but it turned out like always. Victor Chernomydrin) (1) According to literary legend, Shangri-La is an idyllic and harmonious place. Mental health is aspiring to its own Shangri-La in the shape of better integrated care. But do current reforms make integrated practice more or less likely? And what can be done to increase the chances of success? The aim of this article is to review the current state of mental health reforms in Australia now under way across Primary Health Networks, the National Disability Insurance Scheme, psychosocial support services and elsewhere. What are these changes and what are the implications for the future of integrated mental health care? Is Shangri-La just over the horizon, or have we embarked instead on a fool’s errand?

Concepts: Health care, Health insurance, Future, Mental disorder, The Current, Massachusetts, Horizon


With the development of fourth-generation high-brightness synchrotrons on the horizon, the already large volume of data that will be collected on imaging and mapping beamlines is set to increase by orders of magnitude. As such, an easy and accessible way of dealing with such large datasets as quickly as possible is required in order to be able to address the core scientific problems during the experimental data collection. Savu is an accessible and flexible big data processing framework that is able to deal with both the variety and the volume of data of multimodal and multidimensional scientific datasets output such as those from chemical tomography experiments on the I18 microfocus scanning beamline at Diamond Light Source.

Concepts: Chemistry, Science, Data, Experiment, Theory, The Core, Horizon, Beamline


KRAS is the most frequently mutated oncogene in human cancer. In addition to holding this distinction, unsuccessful attempts to target this protein have led to the characterization of RAS as ‘undruggable’. However, recent advances in technology and novel approaches to drug discovery have renewed hope that a direct KRAS inhibitor may be on the horizon. In this Review, we provide an in-depth analysis of the structure, dynamics, mutational activation and inactivation, and signalling mechanisms of RAS. From this perspective, we then consider potential mechanisms of action for effective RAS inhibitors. Finally, we examine each of the many recent reports of direct RAS inhibitors and discuss promising avenues for further development.

Concepts: Cancer, Mutation, Structure, Enzyme inhibitor, Inhibitor, Oncogene, Perspective, Horizon


While radical nephroureterectomy remains the gold-standard for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC), there is a growing push for organ-sparing therapy in low-risk disease. Herein we review the use of intracavitary topical therapy for treatment of UTUC. Areas covered:. A PubMed search was performed for studies pertaining to upper tract urothelial carcinoma, with 236 articles reviewed, and distilled for content pertinent to intracavitary therapy for UTUC. Topics discussed include agents used for management of UTUC, most commonly BCG, as well as techniques for administration. Additionally, we review the evidence for curative treatment for Cis versus adjuvant therapy for Ta/T1 disease. Finally, we discuss emerging technologies to improve agent delivery and efficacy in the upper tract. Expert Commentary: No significant advances have occurred in topical management of UTUC in the past 2 decades. However, advances in diagnostic techniques such as modern ureteroscopes, and improved diagnostic imaging at the time of ureteroscopy may help improve our patient selection. Additional advances in topical therapy focused on increasing the duration of contact between agent delivered and the upper tract urothelium offer hope that a new leap forward in topical therapy is on the horizon.

Concepts: Medicine, Improve, Therapy, Adjuvant, Agent, PubMed, Transitional cell carcinoma, Horizon


To obtain the complete operational picture of the maritime situation in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) which lies over the horizon (OTH) requires the integration of data obtained from various sensors. These sensors include: high frequency surface-wave-radar (HFSWR), satellite automatic identification system (SAIS) and land automatic identification system (LAIS). The algorithm proposed in this paper utilizes radar tracks obtained from the network of HFSWRs, which are already processed by a multi-target tracking algorithm and associates SAIS and LAIS data to the corresponding radar tracks, thus forming an integrated data pair. During the integration process, all HFSWR targets in the vicinity of AIS data are evaluated and the one which has the highest matching factor is used for data association. On the other hand, if there is multiple AIS data in the vicinity of a single HFSWR track, the algorithm still makes only one data pair which consists of AIS and HFSWR data with the highest mutual matching factor. During the design and testing, special attention is given to the latency of AIS data, which could be very high in the EEZs of developing countries. The algorithm is designed, implemented and tested in a real working environment. The testing environment is located in the Gulf of Guinea and includes a network of HFSWRs consisting of two HFSWRs, several coastal sites with LAIS receivers and SAIS data provided by provider of SAIS data.

Concepts: New Zealand, Australia, Track and field athletics, France, Radio, Exclusive Economic Zone, Horizon, Automatic Identification System


The majority of World Health Organization grade II and grade III gliomas harbor heterozygous mutations in the metabolic enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1), and tumors with an IDH wild-type status show molecular features of a glioblastoma and simply may constitute a separate disease entity. This discovery has led to a profound shift in the way that gliomas are classified and, consequently, how treatment decisions are made. We will review the current understanding ofIDH-mutant gliomagenesis and the preclinical models being used to investigate the underlying biology of these tumors and to explore new therapeutic options for these patients. We further summarize the results of recent pivotal trials addressing treatment of grade II and grade III gliomas and highlight promisingIDH-mutant-specific therapies on the horizon.

Concepts: Medicine, Cancer, Molecular biology, Cure, Brain tumor, Therapy, World Health Organization, Horizon


The global approach to mosquito-borne diseases (MBDs) is in need of critical re-evaluation. Although there have been dramatic reductions in malaria incidence since 2000, malaria elimination from high-transmission settings remains problematic. At the same time, arbovirus outbreaks have increased in their frequency and impact. The 2015-2016 Zika virus epidemic exposed the dire state of MBD control in many countries, calling for united global action. Despite international resolve to prevent future epidemics, current practices in MBD control are mostly reactive and of limited efficacy. In this Opinion article, we summarize the views of 25 international mosquito experts about the current state of MBD control and highlight the issues that must be addressed in order to tackle emerging threats on the horizon.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Disease, Infectious disease, The Current, Radio, Epidemic, Horizon, Epidemics