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Concept: History of wine

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Wine is a complex beverage, comprising thousands of metabolites that are produced through the action of a plethora of yeasts and bacteria during fermentation of grape must. These microbial communities originate in the vineyard and the winery and reflect the influence of several factors including grape variety, geographical location, climate, vineyard spraying, technological practices, processing stage and season (pre-harvest, harvest, post-harvest). Vineyard and winery microbial communities have the potential to participate during fermentation and influence wine flavour and aroma. Therefore, there is an enormous interest in isolating and characterising these communities, particularly non-Saccharomyces yeast species to increase wine flavour diversity, while also exploting regional signature microbial populations to enhance regionality. In this review we describe the role and relevance of the main non-Saccharomyces yeast species found in vineyards and wineries. This includes the latest reports covering the application of these species for winemaking; and the biotechnological characteristics and potential applications of non-Saccharomyces species in other areas. In particular, we focus attention on the species for which molecular and genomic tools and resources are available for study.

Concepts: Bacteria, Metabolism, Yeast, Wine, Fermentation, Grape, Winemaking, History of wine

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The definition of the terroir concept is one of the most debated issues in oenology and viticulture. The dynamic interaction among diverse factors including the environment, the grapevine plant and the imposed viticultural techniques means that the wine produced in a given terroir is unique. However, there is an increasing interest to define and quantify the contribution of individual factors to a specific terroir objectively. Here, we characterized the metabolome and transcriptome of berries from a single clone of the Corvina variety cultivated in seven different vineyards, located in three macrozones, over a 3-year trial period.

Concepts: Fruit, Vitis vinifera, Wine, Grape, Viticulture, Berry, History of wine, Annual growth cycle of grapevines

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Bushfires occur frequently in the vicinity of grape growing regions, resulting in smoke drifting over the vineyards. Wine made from smoked grapes is often downgraded or unfit for sale due to negative sensory characters. In order to manage or avoid the risk of producing smoke-affected wine, a diagnostic assay was developed for assessing the extent of smoke exposure in grapes and the resulting wines. The method relies on the quantification of the glycosidic grape metabolites that are formed from major volatile phenols present in smoke. Using HPLC-MS/MS with APCI, a quantification method for phenolic glycosides as smoke marker compounds was developed and validated. The method was confirmed to be of sufficient sensitivity and reliability to use as a diagnostic assay. On the basis of phenolic glycoside concentrations, grapes or wine can be assessed as smoke exposed or not, and the relative intensity of smoke exposure can be determined.

Concepts: Scientific method, Quercetin, Glycoside, Wine, Grape, Anthocyanin, Glycosidic bond, History of wine

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Organic products are generally recognized to be healthier and safer than conventional products. However, the actual scientific data regarding the importance of organic production on particular contaminant/additive content of wines is scarce. This study aimed to evaluate contents of pesticides, metals, sulphites and ochratoxin A in organically (org) and conventionally (conv) produced wines from eleven locations in different winegrowing regions of Croatia. All wines contained significantly lower levels of residues as compared to the maximum limits (MLs) with the exception of excessive amounts of Cu and Zn in one sample. Pb and Mg were mainly significantly less represented in org wines. There were no significant differences in the content of sulphite or ochratoxin A between org and conv wines. Significantly lower total pesticide concentrations and average number of pesticides per sample were obtained in org wines. The majority of ochratoxin A positive wines were from conv wine producers.

Concepts: Pesticide, Organic farming, Wine, Organic food, History of wine, Rotenone

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Wine elemental composition varies by cultivar, geographic origin, viticultural and enological practices, and is often used for authenticity validation. Elemental analysis of wine by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) is challenging due to the potential for non-spectral interferences and plasma instability arising from organic matrix components. Sample preparation mitigates these interferences, however, conflicting recommendations of best practices in ICP-MS analysis of wine have been reported. This study compared direct dilution, microwave-assisted acid digestion, and two filtration sample pretreatments, acidification prior to filtration and filtration followed by acidification, in elemental profiling of one white and three red table wines by ICP-MS. Of 43 monitored isotopes, 37 varied by sample preparation method, with significantly higher results of 17 isotopes in the microwave-digested samples. Both filtration treatments resulted in lower results for 11 isotopes compared to the other methods. Finally, isotope dilution determination of copper based on natural abundances and the (63)Cu:(65)Cu instrument response ratio agreed with external calibration and confirmed a significant sample preparation effect. Overall, microwave digestion did not compare favorably, and direct dilution was found to provide the best compromise between ease of use and result accuracy and precision, although all preparation strategies were able to differentiate the wines.

Concepts: Mass spectrometry, Analytical chemistry, Accuracy and precision, Isotope, Wine, Plasma, Plasma physics, History of wine

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We developed a method for sensitive elemental analysis of wines using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). In order to overcome the inefficiency of direct ablation of bulk wine (an organic liquid), a thin layer of wine residue was prepared on a metallic target according to an appropriated heating procedure applied to an amount of liquid wine dropped on the target surface. The obtained ensemble was thus ablated. Such a sample preparation procedure used a very small volume of 2 mL of wine and took only 30 min without reagent or solvent. The results show the detection of tens of metal and non-metal elements including majors (Na, Mg, K, Ca), minors, and traces (Li, B, Si, P, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Ba, and Pb) in wines purchased from local supermarkets and from different production places in France. Commercially available wines were then spiked with certified standard solutions of Ti and Fe. Three series of laboratory reference samples were thus prepared using three different wines (a red wine and a white wine from a same production region and a red wine from another production region) with concentrations of Ti and Fe in the range of 1-40 mg/L. Calibration graphs established with the spiked samples allowed extracting the figures-of-merit parameters of the method for wine analysis such as the coefficient of determination ( R(2)) and the limits of detection and quantification (LOD and LOQ). The calibration curves built with the three wines were then compared. We studied the residual matrix effect between these wines in the determination of the concentrations of Ti and Fe.

Concepts: Spectroscopy, Chemical element, Carbon, Metal, Trigraph, Gh, Wine, History of wine

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Grape and wine phenolics display a noticeable structural diversity, encompassing distinct compounds ranging from simple molecules to oligomers, as well as polymers usually designated as tannins. Since these compounds contribute critically to the organoleptic properties of wines, their analysis and quantification are of primordial importance for winery industry operators. Besides, the occurrence of these compounds has been also extensively described in winery residues, which have been pointed as a valuable source of bioactive phytochemicals presenting potential for the development of new added value products that could fit the current market demands. Therefore, the cumulative knowledge generated during the last decades has allowed the identification of the most promising compounds displaying interesting biological functions, as well as the chemical features responsible for the observed bioactivities. In this regard, the present review explores the scope of the existing knowledge, concerning the compounds found in these winery by-products, as well as the chemical features presumably responsible for the biological functions already identified. Moreover, the present work will hopefully pave the way for further actions to develop new powerful applications to these materials, thus, contributing to more sustainable valorization procedures and the development of newly obtained compounds with enhanced biological properties.

Concepts: DNA, Molecule, Chemistry, Value added, Chemical compound, Resveratrol, Wine, History of wine

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The (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotope ratios were measured on grape, wine and soil samples collected in 13 commercial vineyards located in three major wine producing areas of Quebec (Canada). The soils yield Sr isotope ratios that are intimately related to the local geology and unambiguously discriminate the different producing areas. A strong relationship exists between the (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotope ratios of the wine and the grapes. This suggests that the vinification process does not alter the overall Sr budget. Although the Sr isotope ratios of the grapes do not show a strong correlation with the bulk Sr isotope composition of the soil, they do correlate strongly with the Sr isotope composition contained in the labile fraction of the soil. This indicates that the labile fraction of the soil represents the Sr reservoir available to the plant during its growth. This study demonstrates that the Sr isotope approach can be used as a viable tool in forensic science for investigating the provenance of commercial wines.

Concepts: Yeast, Soil, Vitis vinifera, Wine, Grape, Viticulture, Winemaking, History of wine

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We carried out comprehensive mapping of volatile compounds in 70 wines, from 48 wineries and 6 vintages, representative of the two main production areas for Italian sparkling wines, by HS-SPME-GCxGC-TOF-MS and multivariate analysis. The final scope was to describe the metabolomics space of these wines, and to verify whether the grape cultivar signature, the pedoclimatic influence of the production area, and the complex technology were measurable in the final product. The wine chromatograms provided a wealth of information, with 1695 compounds being found. A large number of putative markers influenced by the cultivation area was observed. A subset of 196 biomarkers fully discriminated between the two types of sparkling wines investigated. Among the new compounds, safranal and α-isophorone were observed. We showed how correlation-based network analysis could be used as a tool to detect the differences in compound behaviour based on external/environmental influences.

Concepts: Mass spectrometry, Chromatography, Wine, Fermentation, Time-of-flight, Chardonnay, History of wine, Sparkling wine

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Wine and fermenting musts are grape products widely consumed worldwide. Since the presence of mycotoxin-producing fungi may greatly compromise their quality characteristics and safety, there is an increasing need for relatively rapid “user friendly” quantitative assays to detect fungal contamination both in grapes delivered to wineries and in final products. Although other fungi are most frequently involved in grape deterioration, secondary infections by Penicillium spp. are quite common, especially in cool areas with high humidity and in wines obtained by partially dried grapes. In this work, a single-tube nested real-time PCR approach-successfully applied to hazelnut and peanut allergen detection-was tested for the first time to trace Penicillium spp. in musts and wines. The method consisted of two sets of primers specifically designed to target the β-tubulin gene, to be simultaneously applied with the aim of lowering the detection limit of conventional real-time PCR. The assay was able to detect up to 1 fg of Penicillium DNA. As confirmation, patulin content of representative samples was determined. Most of analyzed wines/musts returned contaminated results at >50 ppb and a 76% accordance with molecular assay was observed. Although further large-scale trials are needed, these results encourage the use of the newly developed method in the pre-screening of fresh and processed grapes for the presence of Penicillium DNA before the evaluation of related toxins.

Concepts: Polymerase chain reaction, Molecular biology, Fungus, Yeast, Wine, Penicillium, Grape, History of wine