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Concept: History of Canada


Accurately documenting the current and future costs of hypertension is required to fully understand the potential economic impact of currently available and future interventions to prevent and treat hypertension. The objective of this work was to calculate the healthcare costs attributable to hypertension in Canada and to project these costs to 2020. Using population-based administrative data for the province of Alberta, Canada (>3 million residents) from 2002 to 2010, we identified individuals with and without diagnosed hypertension. We calculated their total healthcare costs and estimated costs attributable to hypertension using a regression model adjusting for comorbidities and sociodemographic factors. We then extrapolated hypertension-attributable costs to the rest of Canada and projected costs to the year 2020. Twenty-one percent of adults in Alberta had diagnosed hypertension in 2010, with a projected increase to 27% by 2020. The average individual with hypertension had annual healthcare costs of $5768, of which $2341 (41%) were attributed to hypertension. In Alberta, the healthcare costs attributable to hypertension were $1.4 billion in 2010. In Canada, the hypertension-attributable costs were estimated to be $13.9 billion in 2010, rising to $20.5 billion by 2020. The increase was ascribed to demographic changes (52%), increasing prevalence (16%), and increasing per-patient costs (32%). Hypertension accounts for a significant proportion of healthcare spending (10.2% of the Canadian healthcare budget) and is projected to rise even further. Interventions to prevent and treat hypertension may play a role in limiting this cost growth.

Concepts: Cohort study, Medicare, Alberta, Provinces and territories of Canada, Canada, Health care in the United States, British Columbia, History of Canada


Aboriginal infants are at risk for serious respiratory infection.

Concepts: Canada, History of Canada


Despite evidence supporting the ongoing provision of health education interventions in First Nations communities, there is a paucity of research that specifically addresses how these programs should be designed to ensure sustainability and long-term effects. Using a Community-Based Research approach, a collective case study was completed with three Canadian First Nations communities to address the following research question: What factors are related to sustainable health education programs, and how do they contribute to and/or inhibit program success in an Aboriginal context? Semi-structured interviews and a sharing circle were completed with 19 participants, including members of community leadership, external partners, and program staff and users. Seven factors were identified to either promote or inhibit program sustainability, including: 1) community uptake; 2) environmental factors; 3) stakeholder awareness and support; 4) presence of a champion; 5) availability of funding; 6) fit and flexibility; and 7) capacity and capacity building. Each factor is provided with a working definition, influential moderators, and key evaluation questions. This study is grounded in, and builds on existing research, and can be used by First Nations communities and universities to support effective sustainability planning for community-based health education interventions.

Concepts: Educational psychology, Canada, Social sciences, Community, United Nations, First Nations, History of Canada, First Nation


This article discusses Indigenous (1) (1)In this article, the terms “Indigenous”, “First Nations”, “Aboriginal” and “Treaty Indian” are used interchangeably, and as needed to describe the political reality of the First Peoples of Canada. children with disabilities in Canada and examines their experiences with federal and provincial jurisdictional and funding disputes. It explores Canada’s adversarial legal and policy techniques to delay implementation and funding of Jordan’s Principle, a Canadian Human Rights Tribunal action seeking to address the delays, and the recommendations of a recent independent Canadian research project. Finally, it suggests ways to advance Jordan’s Principle in Canada and elsewhere.

Concepts: Canada, Common law, Quebec, First Nations, Aboriginal peoples in Canada, History of Canada, Canadian English, International Court of Justice


Although the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been decreasing worldwide, Aboriginal populations of Canada (including First Nations, M├ętis, and Inuit Peoples) continue to experience a rapidly growing burden of CVD morbidity and mortality. This article provides a succinct summary of the current crisis of CVD among Canadian Aboriginal peoples, including how and why it originated, elucidates the underlying population health risks driving higher rates of aboriginal CVD, and articulates the urgent need for community-engagement solutions and innovations in the areas of prevention, treatment and care, rehabilitation services, aboriginal-specific CVD surveillance, and advanced knowledge. In the past, particularly in rural and remote communities, Aboriginal Peoples' survival depended (and often still does) on hunting, fishing, and other forms of traditional food-gathering. However, the traditional life is being changed for many Aboriginal communities, resulting in significantly impaired dietary options and the undermining of a long-established way of life that was healthy and physically active. Reclaiming CVD health and well-being requires replacement of the calorie-dense and nutritionally inadequate diets of highly processed store-bought foods with fresh and nutritionally balanced diets and addressing the physically inactive lifestyles that together have contributed to an increase in CVD prevalence. Furthermore, disparities exist for hospital-based treatment experiences for patients from areas with high proportions of Aboriginal Peoples vs those with low proportions of Aboriginal Peoples. It is crucial to investigate and develop concrete plans to reduce the burden of CVDs among Aboriginal Peoples by improved prevention and treatment in a community-centred way.

Concepts: Medicine, Disease, Canada, Inuit, Indigenous Australians, First Nations, Aboriginal peoples in Canada, History of Canada


Alnus incana, commonly known as the gray or speckled alder, is a medicinal plant used by some Canadian First Nations to treat symptoms associated with tuberculosis. The aim of the study was to assess the anti-mycobacterial activity of an Alnus incana bark extract and to identify the active constituents of the extract.

Concepts: Canada, Ontario, First Nations, Alder, Alnus, Aboriginal peoples in Canada, History of Canada, Alnus incana


Prior Canadian studies of cardiac procedure rates showed changes over time and regional variability, but more recent Canadian cardiac procedure rates are unknown.

Concepts: Geography, Alberta, Canada, History of Canada, Temporal logic, Steeleye Span


It is widely recognised that significant discrepancies exist between the health of indigenous and non-indigenous populations. Whilst the reasons are incompletely defined, one potential cause is that indigenous communities do not access healthcare to the same extent. We investigated healthcare utilisation rates in the Canadian Aboriginal population to elucidate the contribution of this fundamental social determinant for health to such disparities.

Concepts: Health disparities, Demography, Canada, Inuit, Indigenous Australians, First Nations, Aboriginal peoples in Canada, History of Canada