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Concept: Hispanic

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Hispanics are underrepresented in medical research. At the National Lung Screening Trial’s University of Colorado Denver screening center, traditional recruitment methods resulted in enrollment of few Hispanics. In response, the center adopted culturally sensitive recruitment techniques, including use of carefully-crafted bilingual materials. Bilingual interviewers were hired, and persons familiar with culture and language of groups of different Hispanic origin were consulted. Representation of Hispanics among participants enrolled at the Colorado center increased nearly threefold, from 3.3 to 9.4Ā %, after adoption of these methods. In this manuscript, we report on the specialized recruitment methods that were developed and how they were used to address known barriers to Hispanic recruitment.

Concepts: University of Colorado Denver, Arizona, Culture, New Mexico, California, Denver, Hispanic, Colorado

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Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most prevalent cardiac rhythm disorder worldwide but the underlying genetic and molecular mechanisms and the response to therapies is not fully understood. Despite a greater burden of AF risk factors in Hispanics/Latinos the prevalence of AF remains low. Over the last decade, genome-wide association studies have identified numerous AF susceptibility loci in mostly whites of European descent. The goal of this study was to determine if the top 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with AF in patients of European descent also increase susceptibility to AF in Hispanics/Latinos. AF cases were prospectively enrolled in the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) AF Registry and control subjects were identified from the UIC Cohort of Patients, Family and Friends. AF cases and controls were genotyped for 9 AF risk SNPs at chromosome 1q21: rs13376333, rs6666258; chr1q24: rs3903239; chr4q25: rs2200733; rs10033464; chr10q22: rs10824026; chr14q23: rs1152591; chr16q22: rs2106261 and rs7193343. The study sample consisted of 713 Hispanic/Latino subjects including 103 AF cases and 610 controls. Among the 8 AF risk SNPs genotyped, only rs10033464 SNP at chromosome (chr) 4q25 (near PITX2) was significantly associated with development of AF after multiple risk factor adjustment and multiple testing (adj. odds ratio [OR] 2.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.31-3.94; P = 3.3 x 10-3). Furthermore, the association remained significant when the analysis was restricted to Hispanics of Mexican descent (adj. OR 2.32, 95% CI 1.35-3.99; P = 0.002. We confirm for the first time the association between a chromosome 4q25 SNP and increased susceptibility to AF in Hispanics/Latinos. While the underlying molecular mechanisms by which the chr4q25 SNP modulates AF risk remains unclear, this study supports a genetic basis for non-familial AF in patients of Hispanic descent.

Concepts: Genetics, Hispanic, Single-nucleotide polymorphism, Bioinformatics, Atrial fibrillation, Epidemiology, Medical statistics, DNA

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-Sedentary behavior is recognized as a distinct construct from lack of moderate-vigorous physical activity and is associated with deleterious health outcomes. Previous studies have primarily relied on self-reported data, while data on the relationship between objectively-measured sedentary time and cardiometabolic biomarkers are sparse, especially among U.S. Hispanics/Latinos.

Concepts: Alaska, Hispanic, New Jersey, Mexican American, New Mexico, California, United States, Hispanic and Latino Americans

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Black and Hispanic adults have long experienced higher uninsurance rates than white adults. Under the Affordable Care Act, differences in uninsurance rates have narrowed for both black and Hispanic adults compared to their white counterparts, but Hispanics continue to face large gaps in coverage.

Concepts: Hispanic, Mexican American, Spanish American, Demographics of the United States, White American, Black Hispanic and Latino Americans, White Hispanic and Latino Americans, Hispanic and Latino Americans

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In California, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cancer in Latinos. Using data from the California Cancer Registry, we investigated demographic and clinical characteristics of 36,133 Latinos with CRC living in California during 1995-2011 taking into account subpopulations defined by country of origin.

Concepts: United States presidential election, 1996, Epidemiology, Hispanic, Arizona, Hispanic and Latino Americans, Colorectal cancer, California, United States

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The Internet is an increasingly popular platform for public health interventions due to its distinct ability to communicate with, engage, and educate communities. Given the widespread use of the Internet, these interventions could be a means of equalizing access to information to address health disparities in minority populations, such as Hispanics. Hispanics are disproportionately affected by poor health outcomes, including obesity, diabetes, and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Although underserved and underrepresented, Hispanics are among the leading users of social media in the United States. Previous reviews have examined the use of social media in public health efforts, but, to our knowledge, none have focused on the Hispanic population.

Concepts: History of the Internet, Public health, Hispanic, United Kingdom, Sociology, Health disparities, United States, AIDS

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Abstract Objectives: Rates of powder cocaine and crack use have fluctuated among adolescents over recent decades. Little attention has been paid to recent trends, particularly regarding differences between users of powder cocaine and crack-two forms of the substance that are commonly reported together as “cocaine” use, despite having different effects and rates of adverse outcomes. Methods: We examined data from nationally representative samples of high school seniors who participated in the Monitoring the Future study during years 2005-2011 (weighted Nā€‰=ā€‰65ā€‰717). Results: Many demographic and socioeconomic variables were similarly correlated with lifetime use of powder cocaine and crack. Income of >$50/week from job increased the odds for use, and income of >$50/week from sources other than a job more than doubled the odds for use. High religiosity, high parent education, identifying as black, and residing with one or two parents reduced odds for use. Hispanic students were at higher odds for use of crack and females were at lower odds for using powder cocaine. Among cocaine users, residing with one or two parents lowered odds for using both forms, and more religious students and Hispanics were at higher odds for crack-only use. Conclusions: Those interested in preventing initiation and adverse consequences of cocaine use should take into account the overlapping, yet different risk profiles of powder cocaine and crack users when developing programming. This is particularly important when considering differences in legal consequences for these pharmacologically similar forms of cocaine.

Concepts: Crack cocaine, Difference, Parent, Hispanic, Hispanic and Latino Americans, United States, High school, Cocaine

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In this cross-sectional study, we examined the neuropsychiatric profile of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (NPI-Q). Data were available on 875 controls, 339 MCI cases, and 975 AD participants. Surprisingly, differences in neuropsychiatric symptom (NPS) severity by ethnicity in subjects with AD, but not with MCI, were found. More so, in Hispanics with AD, a higher frequency in most of the individual NPI-Q symptom items of the scale was observed, except for apathy. After adjustment for clinical features, some individual NPI-Q symptoms also showed an association with Hispanic ethnicity in the control group that nearly reached statistical significance. There may be cross-ethnic differences in the neuropsychiatric presentation of AD in Hispanics versus non-Hispanic whites. Future studies are needed to clarify the etiology of these differences, and to assess the need for ethnicity-specific treatment and care-giving interventions.

Concepts: Disease, Symptoms, White American, Symptom, Hispanic, Greek loanwords, Hispanic and Latino Americans, Alzheimer's disease

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Internet access has grown markedly in Latinos during the past decade. However, there have been no Internet-based physical activity interventions designed for Latinos, despite large disparities in lifestyle-related conditions, such as obesity and diabetes, particularly in Latina women. The current study tested the efficacy of a 6-month culturally adapted, individually tailored, Spanish-language Internet-based physical activity intervention.

Concepts: Obesity, Internet, Hispanic and Latino Americans, Miami, Hispanic, New Mexico, United States, Randomized controlled trial