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Concept: Hispanic and Latino Americans


In this article, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of female breast cancer statistics in the United States, including data on incidence, mortality, survival, and screening. Approximately 231,840 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 40,290 breast cancer deaths are expected to occur among US women in 2015. Breast cancer incidence rates increased among non-Hispanic black (black) and Asian/Pacific Islander women and were stable among non-Hispanic white (white), Hispanic, and American Indian/Alaska Native women from 2008 to 2012. Although white women have historically had higher incidence rates than black women, in 2012, the rates converged. Notably, during 2008 through 2012, incidence rates were significantly higher in black women compared with white women in 7 states, primarily located in the South. From 1989 to 2012, breast cancer death rates decreased by 36%, which translates to 249,000 breast cancer deaths averted in the United States over this period. This decrease in death rates was evident in all racial/ethnic groups except American Indians/Alaska Natives. However, the mortality disparity between black and white women nationwide has continued to widen; and, by 2012, death rates were 42% higher in black women than in white women. During 2003 through 2012, breast cancer death rates declined for white women in all 50 states; but, for black women, declines occurred in 27 of 30 states that had sufficient data to analyze trends. In 3 states (Mississippi, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin), breast cancer death rates in black women were stable during 2003 through 2012. Widening racial disparities in breast cancer mortality are likely to continue, at least in the short term, in view of the increasing trends in breast cancer incidence rates in black women. CA Cancer J Clin 2015. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

Concepts: Cancer, Breast cancer, United States, Race, White American, White people, Hispanic and Latino Americans, Puerto Rico


The aging of the US population is expected to lead to a large increase in the number of adults with dementia, but some recent studies in the United States and other high-income countries suggest that the age-specific risk of dementia may have declined over the past 25 years. Clarifying current and future population trends in dementia prevalence and risk has important implications for patients, families, and government programs.

Concepts: Biology, United States, Poverty in the United States, U.S. state, At-large, Hispanic and Latino Americans, Immigration to the United States, Sovereign state



Teen childbearing can have negative health, economic, and social consequences for mothers and their children (1) and costs the United States approximately $9.4 billion annually (2). During 1991-2014, the birth rate among teens aged 15-19 years in the United States declined 61%, from 61.8 to 24.2 births per 1,000, the lowest rate ever recorded (3). Nonetheless, in 2014, the teen birth rate remained approximately twice as high for Hispanic and non-Hispanic black (black) teens compared with non-Hispanic white (white) teens (3), and geographic and socioeconomic disparities remain (3,4), irrespective of race/ethnicity. Social determinants associated with teen childbearing (e.g., low parental educational attainment and limited opportunities for education and employment) are more common in communities with higher proportions of racial and ethnic minorities (4), contributing to the challenge of further reducing disparities in teen births. To examine trends in births for teens aged 15-19 years by race/ethnicity and geography, CDC analyzed National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) data at the national (2006-2014), state (2006-2007 and 2013-2014), and county (2013-2014) levels. To describe socioeconomic indicators previously associated with teen births, CDC analyzed data from the American Community Survey (ACS) (2010-2014). Nationally, from 2006 to 2014, the teen birth rate declined 41% overall with the largest decline occurring among Hispanics (51%), followed by blacks (44%), and whites (35%). The birth rate ratio for Hispanic teens and black teens compared with white teens declined from 2.9 to 2.2 and from 2.3 to 2.0, respectively. From 2006-2007 to 2013-2014, significant declines in teen birth rates and birth rate ratios were noted nationally and in many states. At the county level, teen birth rates for 2013-2014 ranged from 3.1 to 119.0 per 1,000 females aged 15-19 years; ACS data indicated unemployment was higher, and education attainment and family income were lower in counties with higher teen birth rates. State and county data can be used to understand disparities in teen births and implement community-level interventions that address the social and structural conditions associated with high teen birth rates.

Concepts: Childbirth, United States, United Kingdom, Race, White American, White people, Minority group, Hispanic and Latino Americans


Breastfeeding provides numerous health benefits for infants and mothers alike. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends exclusive breastfeeding for approximately the first 6 months of life and continued breastfeeding with complementary foods through at least the first year (1). National estimates indicate substantial differences between non-Hispanic black (black) and non-Hispanic white (white) infants across breastfeeding indicators in the United States (2). CDC analyzed 2011-2015 National Immunization Survey (NIS) data for children born during 2010-2013 to describe breastfeeding initiation, exclusivity through 6 months and duration at 12 months among black and white infants. Among the 34 states (including the District of Columbia [DC]) with sufficient sample size (≥50 per group), initiation rates were significantly (p<0.05) lower among black infants than white infants in 23 states; in 14 of these states (primarily in the South and Midwest), the difference was at least 15 percentage points. A significant difference of at least 10 percentage points was identified in exclusive breastfeeding through 6 months in 12 states and in breastfeeding at 12 months in 22 states. Despite overall increases in breastfeeding rates for black and white infants over the last decade, racial disparities persist. Interventions specifically addressing barriers to breastfeeding for black women are needed.

Concepts: United States, Black people, United Kingdom, Race, White American, White people, African American, Hispanic and Latino Americans


Gastroschisis is a serious congenital defect in which the intestines protrude through an opening in the abdominal wall. Gastroschisis requires surgical repair soon after birth and is associated with an increased risk for medical complications and mortality during infancy. Reports from multiple surveillance systems worldwide have documented increasing prevalence of gastroschisis since the 1980s, particularly among younger mothers (1,2); however, since publication of a multistate U.S. report that included data through 2005 (1), it is not known whether prevalence has continued to increase. Data on gastroschisis from 14 population-based state surveillance programs were pooled and analyzed to assess the average annual percent change (AAPC) in prevalence and to compare the prevalence during 2006-2012 with that during 1995-2005, stratified by maternal age and race/ethnicity. The pooled data included approximately 29% of U.S. births for the period 1995-2012. During 1995-2012, gastroschisis prevalence increased in every category of maternal age and race/ethnicity, and the AAPC ranged from 3.1% in non-Hispanic white (white) mothers aged <20 years to 7.9% in non-Hispanic black (black) mothers aged <20 years. These corresponded to overall percentage increases during 1995-2012 that ranged from 68% in white mothers aged <20 years to 263% in black mothers aged <20 years. Gastroschisis prevalence increased 30% between the two periods, from 3.6 per 10,000 births during 1995-2005 to 4.9 per 10,000 births during 2006-2012 (prevalence ratio = 1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3-1.4), with the largest increase among black mothers aged <20 years (prevalence ratio = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.6-2.5). Public health research is urgently needed to identify factors contributing to this increase.

Concepts: Age, United States, Ageing, White American, White people, Congenital disorder, Hispanic and Latino Americans, Congenital disorders


Observational studies have reported that black and Hispanic adults receiving maintenance dialysis survive longer than non-Hispanic white counterparts. Whether there are racial disparities in survival of children with ESRD is not clear. We compared mortality risk among non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white children who started RRT between 1995 and 2011 and were followed through 2012. We examined all-cause mortality using adjusted Cox models. Of 12,123 children included for analysis, 1600 died during the median follow-up of 7.1 years. Approximately 25% of children were non-Hispanic black, and 26% of children were of Hispanic ethnicity. Non-Hispanic black children had a 36% higher risk of death (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.21 to 1.52) and Hispanic children had a 34% lower risk of death (95% CI, 0.57 to 0.77) than non-Hispanic white children. Adjustment for transplant as a time-dependent covariate abolished the higher risk of death in non-Hispanic black children (hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.88 to 1.12) but did not attenuate the finding of a lower risk of death in Hispanic children (hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.68). In conclusion, Hispanic children had lower mortality than non-Hispanic white children. Non-Hispanic black children had higher mortality than non-Hispanic white children, which was related to differences in access to transplantation by race. Parity in access to transplantation in children and improvements in strategies to prolong graft survival could substantially reduce disparities in mortality risk of non-Hispanic black children treated with RRT.

Concepts: Race, Ethnic group, White American, White people, Hispanic and Latino Americans, Race in the United States, White Hispanic and Latino Americans


Childhood obesity is associated with negative health consequences in childhood (1) that continue into adulthood (2), putting adults at risk for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain cancers (1). Obesity disproportionately affects children from low-income families (3). Through a collaboration with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), CDC has begun to use data from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Participants and Program Characteristics (WIC PC) to replace the Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System (PedNSS) (4,5) for obesity surveillance among young children from low-income families. CDC examined trends in obesity prevalence during 2000-2014 among WIC participants aged 2-4 years using WIC PC data. Overall obesity prevalence increased from 14.0% in 2000 to 15.5% in 2004 and 15.9% in 2010, and then decreased to 14.5% in 2014. During 2010-2014, the prevalence of obesity decreased significantly overall, among non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanics, American Indian/Alaska Natives and Asians/Pacific Islanders, and among 34 (61%) of the 56 WIC state agencies in states, the District of Columbia, and U.S. territories. Despite these declines, the obesity prevalence among children aged 2-4 years in WIC remains high compared with the national prevalence of 8.9% among children aged 2-5 years in 2011-2014. Continued initiatives to work with parents and other stakeholders to promote healthy pregnancies, breastfeeding, quality nutrition, and physical activity for young children in multiple settings are needed to ensure healthy child development.

Concepts: Nutrition, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diabetes mellitus, Obesity, United States, Childhood, Hispanic and Latino Americans, Territories of the United States


Reductions in smoking in Arizona and California have been shown to be associated with reduced per capita healthcare expenditures in these states compared to control populations in the rest of the US. This paper extends that analysis to all states and estimates changes in healthcare expenditure attributable to changes in aggregate measures of smoking behavior in all states.

Concepts: United States, U.S. state, California, Native Americans in the United States, Hispanic and Latino Americans, Democratic Party, Colorado, Mexican–American War


Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most prevalent cancer among children and adolescents in the United States, representing 20% of all cancers diagnosed in persons aged <20 years, or >3,000 new cases each year (1). Past studies reported increasing trends of ALL overall and among Hispanics, but these represented ≤28% of the U.S. population and did not provide state-based estimates (1-3). To describe U.S. ALL incidence rates and trends among persons aged <20 years during 2001-2014, CDC analyzed rigorous data (based on established publication criteria) from the United States Cancer Statistics data set, which includes incidence data on approximately 15,000 new cases per year of all types of invasive cancer among children and adolescents aged <20 years (4). The data set represented 98% of the U.S. population during the study period. Overall incidence of pediatric ALL during 2001-2014 was 34.0 cases per 1 million persons and among all racial/ethnic groups was highest among Hispanics (42.9 per 1 million). Both overall and among Hispanics, pediatric ALL incidence increased during 2001-2008 and remained stable during 2008-2014. ALL incidence was higher in the West than in any other U.S. Census region. State-specific data indicated that the highest rates of pediatric ALL incidence were in California, New Mexico, and Vermont. These demographic and geographic ALL incidence data might better inform public health interventions targeting the following areas: exposures to recognized risk factors for leukemia; ALL treatment, including clinical trial enrollment; survivorship care planning; and studies designed to understand the factors affecting changes in pediatric cancer incidence.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Cancer, United States, Spanish language, Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Mexico, Hispanic and Latino Americans, New Mexico