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Concept: Hip fracture

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malnutrition is an important risk factor for poor outcome in patients recovering after hip fracture surgery. This study aimed to investigate the clinical, nutritional and rehabilitation effects of an oral nutritional supplementation (ONS) in an inpatient rehabilitation setting.

Concepts: Osteoporosis, Epidemiology, Hip fracture, The Canon of Medicine, Randomized controlled trial, Avicenna, Pharmaceutical industry, Clinical research

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BACKGROUND: The most common mechanical failure in the internal fixation of trochanteric hip fractures is the cut-out of the sliding screw through the femoral head. Several factors that influence this complication have been suggested, but there is no consensus as to the relative importance of each factor.The purpose of this study was to analyse the cut-out complication with respect to the following variables: patients` age, fracture type, fracture reduction, implant positioning and implant design. METHODS: 3066 consecutive patients were treated for trochanteric fractures with Gamma Nails between 1990 and 2002 at the Centre de Traumatologie et de l`Orthopedie (CTO), Strasbourg, France. Cut-out complications were identified by reviewing all available case notes and radiographs. Subsequently, the data were analysed by a single reviewer (AJB) with focus on the studied factors. RESULTS: Seventy-one cut-out complications were found (2.3%) of the 3066 trochanteric fractures. Cut-out failure associated with avascular head necrosis, pathologic fracture, deep infection or secondary to prior failure of other implants were excluded from the study (14 cases). The remaining 57 cases (1.85 %, median age 82.6, 79% females) were believed to have a biomechanical explanation for the cut-out failure. 41 patients had a basicervical or complex fracture type. A majority of cut-outs (43 hips, 75%) had a combination of the critical factors studied; non-anatomical reduction, non-optimal lag screw position and the characteristic fracture pattern found. CONCLUSIONS: The primary cut-out rate of 1.85% was low compared with the literature. A typical cut-out complication in our study is represented by an unstable fracture involving the trochanteric and cervical regions or the combination of both, non-anatomical reduction and non-optimal screw position. Surgeons confronted with proximal femoral fractures should carefully scrutinize preoperative radiographs to assess the primary fracture geometry and fracture classification. To reduce the risk of a cut-out it is important to achieve both anatomical reduction and optimal lag screw position as these are the only two factors that can be controlled by the surgeon.

Concepts: Osteoporosis, Bone fracture, Hip fracture, Hip replacement, Orthopedic surgery, Avascular necrosis, Cultural studies, Bone fractures

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To assess the relationship between surgical delay and mortality in elderly patients with hip fracture. Systematic review and meta-analysis of retrospective and prospective studies published from 1948 to 2011. Medline (from 1948), Embase (from 1974) and CINAHL (from 1982), and the Cochrane Library. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals for each study were extracted and pooled with a random effects model. Heterogeneity, publication bias, Bayesian analysis, and meta-regression analyses were done. Criteria for inclusion were retro- and prospective elderly population studies, patients with operated hip fractures, indication of timing of surgery and survival status.

Concepts: Osteoporosis, Bone fracture, Hip fracture, Evidence-based medicine, Systematic review, Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Statistical inference

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INTRODUCTION: Mycotic aneurysms are rarely listed among the possible complications of osteomyelitis of the long bones. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case of chronic osteomyelitis associated with a pathological fracture of the femur and a mycotic aneurysm of the femoral artery. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 13-year-old Ugandan boy who was referred to our hospital with chronic osteomyelitis associated with a pathological fracture of the right femur and a mycotic aneurysm of the femoral artery. He underwent a successful above-knee amputation and is currently undergoing rehabilitation. CONCLUSIONS: Aneurysms associated with chronic osteomyelitis of the long bones are very rare. However, in Africa, where people often still believe in crude traditional remedies, they should be considered among the possible diagnoses especially where acute injuries of the limbs are massaged and manipulated.

Concepts: Bone, Hip fracture, Atherosclerosis, Medical terms, Aneurysm, Amputation, Thigh, Osteomyelitis

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Background Romosozumab is a monoclonal antibody that binds to and inhibits sclerostin, increases bone formation, and decreases bone resorption. Methods We enrolled 4093 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and a fragility fracture and randomly assigned them in a 1:1 ratio to receive monthly subcutaneous romosozumab (210 mg) or weekly oral alendronate (70 mg) in a blinded fashion for 12 months, followed by open-label alendronate in both groups. The primary end points were the cumulative incidence of new vertebral fracture at 24 months and the cumulative incidence of clinical fracture (nonvertebral and symptomatic vertebral fracture) at the time of the primary analysis (after clinical fractures had been confirmed in ≥330 patients). Secondary end points included the incidences of nonvertebral and hip fracture at the time of the primary analysis. Serious cardiovascular adverse events, osteonecrosis of the jaw, and atypical femoral fractures were adjudicated. Results Over a period of 24 months, a 48% lower risk of new vertebral fractures was observed in the romosozumab-to-alendronate group (6.2% [127 of 2046 patients]) than in the alendronate-to-alendronate group (11.9% [243 of 2047 patients]) (P<0.001). Clinical fractures occurred in 198 of 2046 patients (9.7%) in the romosozumab-to-alendronate group versus 266 of 2047 patients (13.0%) in the alendronate-to-alendronate group, representing a 27% lower risk with romosozumab (P<0.001). The risk of nonvertebral fractures was lower by 19% in the romosozumab-to-alendronate group than in the alendronate-to-alendronate group (178 of 2046 patients [8.7%] vs. 217 of 2047 patients [10.6%]; P=0.04), and the risk of hip fracture was lower by 38% (41 of 2046 patients [2.0%] vs. 66 of 2047 patients [3.2%]; P=0.02). Overall adverse events and serious adverse events were balanced between the two groups. During year 1, positively adjudicated serious cardiovascular adverse events were observed more often with romosozumab than with alendronate (50 of 2040 patients [2.5%] vs. 38 of 2014 patients [1.9%]). During the open-label alendronate period, adjudicated events of osteonecrosis of the jaw (1 event each in the romosozumab-to-alendronate and alendronate-to-alendronate groups) and atypical femoral fracture (2 events and 4 events, respectively) were observed. Conclusions In postmenopausal women with osteoporosis who were at high risk for fracture, romosozumab treatment for 12 months followed by alendronate resulted in a significantly lower risk of fracture than alendronate alone. (Funded by Amgen and others; ARCH ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01631214 .).

Concepts: Osteoporosis, Bone, Clinical trial, Bone fracture, Hip fracture, Fracture, Menopause, Hip

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Background Romosozumab, a monoclonal antibody that binds sclerostin, increases bone formation and decreases bone resorption. Methods We enrolled 7180 postmenopausal women who had a T score of -2.5 to -3.5 at the total hip or femoral neck. Patients were randomly assigned to receive subcutaneous injections of romosozumab (at a dose of 210 mg) or placebo monthly for 12 months; thereafter, patients in each group received denosumab for 12 months, at a dose of 60 mg, administered subcutaneously every 6 months. The coprimary end points were the cumulative incidences of new vertebral fractures at 12 months and 24 months. Secondary end points included clinical (a composite of nonvertebral and symptomatic vertebral) and nonvertebral fractures. Results At 12 months, new vertebral fractures had occurred in 16 of 3321 patients (0.5%) in the romosozumab group, as compared with 59 of 3322 (1.8%) in the placebo group (representing a 73% lower risk with romosozumab; P<0.001). Clinical fractures had occurred in 58 of 3589 patients (1.6%) in the romosozumab group, as compared with 90 of 3591 (2.5%) in the placebo group (a 36% lower risk with romosozumab; P=0.008). Nonvertebral fractures had occurred in 56 of 3589 patients (1.6%) in the romosozumab group and in 75 of 3591 (2.1%) in the placebo group (P=0.10). At 24 months, the rates of vertebral fractures were significantly lower in the romosozumab group than in the placebo group after each group made the transition to denosumab (0.6% [21 of 3325 patients] in the romosozumab group vs. 2.5% [84 of 3327] in the placebo group, a 75% lower risk with romosozumab; P<0.001). Adverse events, including instances of hyperostosis, cardiovascular events, osteoarthritis, and cancer, appeared to be balanced between the groups. One atypical femoral fracture and two cases of osteonecrosis of the jaw were observed in the romosozumab group. Conclusions In postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, romosozumab was associated with a lower risk of vertebral fracture than placebo at 12 months and, after the transition to denosumab, at 24 months. The lower risk of clinical fracture that was seen with romosozumab was evident at 1 year. (Funded by Amgen and UCB Pharma; FRAME ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01575834 .).

Concepts: Osteoporosis, Pharmacology, Bone, Clinical trial, Bone fracture, Hip fracture, Fracture, Placebo

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We evaluated trends in the incidences of typical and atypical hip fracture in relation to bisphosphonate use in Korea from 2006 to 2010, using nationwide data obtained from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA).

Concepts: Osteoporosis, Hip fracture, Convention on Biological Diversity

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To determine genome-wide methylation profiles of bone from patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA) and those with osteoporotic (OP) hip fractures.

Concepts: Osteoporosis, Bone, Bone fracture, Hip fracture, DNA methylation, Methylation

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Femoral shaft cortical thickening has been mentioned in reports of atypical subtrochanteric and diaphyseal (S/D) femur fractures, but it is unclear whether thickening precedes fracture or results from a preceding stress fracture and what role bisphosphonates might play in cortical thickening.

Concepts: Osteoporosis, Bone, Bone fracture, Hip fracture, Fracture, Cerebral cortex, Elasticity, Play

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Atypical femoral fractures (AFF) associated with long-term bisphosphonates (LTB) are a growing concern. Their aetiology is unknown but bone material properties might be deteriorated. In an AFF series, we analyzed the bone material properties by microindentation. Four groups of patients were included: 6 AFF, 38 typical osteoporotic fractures, 6 LTB and 20 controls without fracture. Neither typical osteoporotic fractures nor controls have received any antiosteoporotic medication. A general laboratory workup, bone densitometry by DXA and microindentation testing at the tibia was done in all patients. Total indentation distance (Total ID), Indentation distance increase (IDI) and Creep indentation distance (Creep ID) were measured (microns). Age-adjusted ANCOVA analysis was used for comparisons. Controls were significantly younger than fracture groups. Bisphosphonate exposure was on average 5.5 years (range 5-12) for the AFF and 5.4 years (range 5-8) for the LTB groups. Total ID (microns) showed better material properties (lower Total ID) for controls 36 (±6) (mean±SD) than for AFF 46(±4) and for typical femoral fractures 47 (±13) respectively. Patients on LTB showed values between controls and fractures, 38(±4), although not significantly different from any of the other three groups. IDI values showed a similar pattern 13 (±2), 16 (±6), 19 (±3) and 18 (±5). After adjusting by age, significant differences were seen between controls, typical (P<0.001) and atypical fractures (P=0.03) for Total ID and for IDI (P<0.001 and P<0.05 respectively). There were no differences in Creep ID between groups. Our data suggest that patients with AFF have a deep deterioration in bone material properties at a tissue level similar to that for the osteoporotic fracture group. The LTB group shows levels that are in between controls and both type of fractures although not statistically different. These results suggest that bisphosphonate therapy probably does not put the majority of patients at risk for AFF. © 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

Concepts: Bisphosphonate, Osteoporosis, Bone, Hip fracture, Fracture, Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, Materials science, Brittle-ductile transition zone